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Mushrooms accumulate arsenic (As), yet As concentrations, speciation, and localization in cultivated mushrooms across a large geographic distribution are unknown. We characterized 141 samples of 9 species from markets in 9 capital cities in China, with samples of Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Agaricus bisporus being analyzed for As speciation and localization. Total As concentrations ranged 0.01-8.31 mg kg-1 dw, with A. bisporus (0.27-2.79 mg kg-1) containing the highest As followed by P. ostreatus and L. edodes (0.04-8.31 and 0.12-2.58 mg kg-1). However, As in A. bisporus was mostly organic including non-toxic arsenobetaine, while P. ostreatus and L. edodes contained mainly inorganic As (iAs). Based on in situ imaging using LA-ICP-MS, As in L. edodes was localized to the surface coat of the cap, while As in P. ostreatus was localized to the junction of the pileus and stipe. When As speciation and daily mushroom consumption (1.37 g d-1 dw) were considered, daily mushroom consumption may result in elevated iAs exposure, with bladder and lung cancer rates being up to 387 cases per 100,000. Our study showed market mushrooms could be a health risk to the general public and its production should be regulated.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
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A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.
Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)
At low concentrations, this compound inhibits reduction of conventional hydrophilic electron acceptors, probably acting as a plastoquinone antagonist. At higher concentrations, it acts as an electron acceptor, intercepting electrons either before or at the site of its inhibitory activity.
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
Non-invasive bladder cancer is a cancer that is only in the inner lining of the bladder. Invasive bladder cancer is cancer that has spread into the deeper walls of the bladder. When the cancer has spread outside the bladder to other parts of the body, th...
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...