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Cadmium is a highly neurotoxic heavy metal impairing neurogenesis and induces neurodegenerative disorders. Toxic concentrations of cadmium induce astrocytic apoptosis by depleting intracellular glutathione levels, elevating intracellular calcium levels, altering mitochondria membrane potentials, and activating JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cadmium suppresses cell proliferation in kidney epithelial cells, lung fibroblasts, and primary myelocytes; however, cadmium's effects on proteins regulating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell proliferation in astrocytes are less known. The present study hypothesized that cadmium alters levels of antioxidant enzymes, apoptotic regulator proteins, and cell cycle inhibitor proteins, resulting in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Concentrations ≥20 μM cadmium induced apoptosis and led to intracellular changes including DNA fragmentation, reduced mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes (i.e., catalase and glutathione S transferase-A4), downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). Moreover, cadmium suppressed astrocytic proliferation by inducing S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and promoting p53, p21, and p27 expression. In conclusion, this study provides mechanistic insight into cadmium-induced cytotoxicity of astrocytes and highlights potential targets for prevention of cadmium-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental toxicology and pharmacology
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant and aggressive primary human brain tumors. The regulatory pathways of apoptosis are altered in GBMs, leading to a survival advantage of the tumor ce...
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that widely exists in the environment and industry, and which causes serious damages to reproductive system. Recent studies have reported that cadmium induces apoptosis o...
To investigate the chemopreventive mechanisms of 4-Methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), we analyzed cell viability, cell cycle distribution, and expression levels for cell cycle and apoptosis...
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The phase I portion of study is designed to determine the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) of BSI-201 with two clinically relevant dosing regimens of temozolomide (TMZ). Secondary objectives ...
Cyclin D kinase 4 (CDK4) is a key regulator of the G1-S transition in the cell cycle. Alterations in CDK4-cyclin D-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway may lead to carcinogenesis in many cancers. S...
The brown meat from crab may contain high levels of the heavy metal cadmium. Cadmium is found in the environment and long-term exposure can cause accumulation in the body. High cadmium lev...
Amblyomin-X is an inhibitor of Factor Xa that also acts as an apoptotic agent for tumor cells. In the case of in vitro assays, Amblyomin-X induces tumor cells to death and does not affect ...
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A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Teniposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent cells from entering into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, and lead to cell death. Teniposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cycle.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
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