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We examined the effect of language proficiency on the status and dynamics of proactive inhibitory control in an occulo-motor cued go-no-go task. The first experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of second language proficiency on proactive inhibitory cost and adjustments in control by evaluating previous trial effects. This was achieved by introducing uncertainty about the upcoming event (go or no-go stimulus). High- and low- proficiency Hindi-English bilingual adults participated in the study. Saccadic latencies and errors were taken as the measures of performance. The results demonstrate a significantly lower proactive inhibitory cost and better up-regulation of proactive control under uncertainty among high- proficiency bilinguals. An analysis based on previous trial effects suggests that high- proficiency bilinguals were found to be better at releasing inhibition and adjustments in control, in an ongoing response activity in the case of uncertainty. To further understand the dynamics of proactive inhibitory control as a function of proficiency, the second experiment was designed to test the default versus temporary state hypothesis of proactive inhibitory control. Certain manipulations were introduced in the cued go-no-go task in order to make the upcoming go or no-go trial difficult to predict, which increased the demands on the implementation and maintenance of proactive control. High- proficiency bilinguals were found to rely on a default state of proactive inhibitory control whereas low- proficiency bilinguals were found to rely on temporary/transient proactive inhibition. Language proficiency, as one of the measures of bilingualism, was found to influence proactive inhibitory control and appears to modulate the dynamics of proactive inhibitory control.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Area of the frontal lobe concerned with primary motor control. It lies anterior to the central sulcus.
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Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.