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Determining prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness and reclassification are critical events during the treatment of localized disease and for patients undergoing active surveillance (AS). Since T cells play major roles in cancer surveillance and elimination, we aimed to identify genetic biomarkers related to T cell cancer immune response which are predictive of aggressiveness and reclassification risks in localized PCa. The genotypes of 3,586 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from T cell cancer immune response pathways were analyzed in 1762 patients with localized disease and 393 who elected AS. The aggressiveness of PCa was defined according to pathological Gleason score (GS) and D'Amico criteria. PCa reclassification was defined according to changes in GS or tumor characteristics during subsequent surveillance biopsies. Functional characterization and analysis of immune phenotypes were also performed. In the localized PCa cohort, seven SNPs were significantly associated with the risk of aggressive disease. In the AS cohort, another eight SNPs were identified as predictors for aggressiveness and reclassification. Rs1687016 of was the most significant predictor of reclassification. Cumulative analysis showed that a genetic score based on the identified SNPs could significantly predict risk of D'Amico high risk disease (= 2.4E-09), GS4 + 3 disease (= 1.3E-04), biochemical recurrence (= 0.01) and reclassification (= 0.01). In addition, the rs34309 variant was associated with functional somatic mutations in the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/MTOR pathway and tumor lymphocyte infiltration. Our study provides plausible evidence that genetic variations in T cell cancer immune response can influence risks of aggressiveness and reclassification in localized PCa, which may lead to additional biological insight into these outcomes. PCa, prostate cancer; AS, active surveillance; GS, Gleason score; PSA, prostate specific antigen; TCGA, The Cancer Genome Atlas; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphisms; UFG, unfavorable genotype.
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Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
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A B7 antigen subtype that inhibits the costimulation of T-cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production and development of cytotoxicity. The over expression of this protein in a variety of tumor cell types suggests its role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...