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Nucleotide excision repair is a versatile mechanism to repair a variety of bulky DNA adducts. We developed excision repair sequencing (XR-seq) to study nucleotide excision repair of DNA adducts in humans, mice, Arabidopsis thaliana, yeast and Escherichia coli. In this protocol, the excised oligomers, generated in the nucleotide excision repair reaction, are isolated by cell lysis and fractionation, followed by immunoprecipitation with damage- or repair factor-specific antibodies from the non-chromatin fraction. The single-stranded excised oligomers are ligated to adapters and re-immunoprecipitated with damage-specific antibodies. The DNA damage in the excised oligomers is then reversed by enzymatic or chemical reactions before being converted into a sequencing library by PCR amplification. Alternatively, the excised oligomers containing DNA damage, especially those containing irreversible DNA damage such as benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts, can be converted to a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) form by using appropriate translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerases and then can be amplified by PCR. The current genome-wide approaches for studying repair measure the loss of damage signal with time, which limits their resolution. By contrast, an advantage of XR-seq is that the repair signal is directly detected above a background of zero. An XR-seq library using the protocol described here can be obtained in 7-9 d.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature protocols
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The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 22.214.171.124.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research into the mapping of the human genome and other organism genomes. The National Center for Human Genome Research was established in 1989 and re-named the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...