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Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can induce objective responses in otherwise refractory malignancies in tumors outside the central nervous system. In large part, effector T cells mediate much of the antitumor efficacy in these trials, and potent antitumor T cells can be generated through vaccination, immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive transfer, and genetic manipulation. However, activated T cells must still traffic to, infiltrate, and persist within tumor in order to mediate tumor lysis. These requirements for efficacy pose unique challenges for brain tumor immunotherapy, due to specific anatomical barriers and populations of specialized immune cells within the central nervous system that function to constrain immunity. Both autoimmune and infectious diseases of the central nervous system provide a wealth of information on how T cells can successfully migrate to the central nervous system and then engender sustained immune responses. In this review, we will examine the commonalities in the efferent arm of immunity to the brain for autoimmunity, infection, and tumor immunotherapy to identify key factors underlying potent immune responses.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pharmacology & therapeutics
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The brain is, by weight, only 2% the volume of the body and yet it consumes about 20% of the total glucose, suggesting that the energy requirements of the brain are high and that glucose is the primar...
Gliomas are destructive malignancies affecting mainly the central nervous system. Gliomas constitute around 50% of all the central nervous system tumors. The purpose of this study was to examine the a...
Central nervous system myelomatosis is uncommon and is associated with a particularly poor prognosis. PET images, from a 53-year-old man referred to a fully digital F-FDG PET for relapsed multiple mye...
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects the central nervous system (CNS). Although previous studies have reported the most common mutated genes in PCNSL,...
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This phase II trial studies the side effects and how well nivolumab and ibrutinib works in treating patients with central nervous system lymphoma that has come back or does not respond to ...
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A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
The enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the central nervous system, especially the hypothalamus and the solitary nucleus, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS; these and related central and sensory structures are sometimes (but not here) considered to be part of the autonomic nervous system itself.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of myelin in the central nervous system.
An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
In a clinical trial or interventional study, participants receive specific interventions according to the research plan or protocol created by the investigators. These interventions may be medical products, such as drugs or devices; procedures; or change...
Clinical trials are a set of procedures in medical research conducted to allow safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g...
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...