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Endothelial cells are the main components of the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels, which play an important role in regulating the physiological functions of the cardiovascular system. Endothelial dysfunction is involved in a variety of acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. As a special type of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), endothelium to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) regulates the transformation of endothelial cells into mesenchymal cells accompanied by changes in the expression of various transcription factors and cytokines, which is closely related to vascular endothelial injury, vascular remodeling, myocardial fibrosis and valvar disease. Endothelial cells undergoing EndMT lose their endothelial characteristics and undergo a transition toward a more mesenchymal-like phenotype. However, the molecular mechanism of EndMT remains unclear. EndMT, as a type of endothelial dysfunction, can cause vascular remodeling which is a major determinant of atherosclerotic luminal area. Therefore, exploring the important signaling pathways in the process of EndMT may provide novel therapeutic strategies for treating atherosclerotic diseases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
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A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR C in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
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