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Most of the unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins available worldwide are produced by Chinese companies from porcine mucosa. China is the world's largest producer of pork and thus has plenty of raw material to produce heparins. However, the deadly African Swine Flu (ASF) outbreaks afflicting China since August 2018 may cause extensive losses on the pig heard, bringing serious consequences to the global supply of heparins. In 2008, a sudden shortage of heparin raw material resulting from a viral disease in Chinese pigs prompted adulterations responsible for 80 deaths and hundreds of adverse events. This incident revealed the fragility of such a supply chain mostly based on a single animal raw material from a single country. A worldwide introduction of bovine mucosa heparins manufactured in different countries certainly is the feasible way to mitigate eventual shortages of these life-saving anticoagulants caused by local veterinary problems like the ASF threatening China now. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH
The continuing spread of African swine fever (ASF) outside Africa in Europe, the Russian Federation, China and most recently to Mongolia and Vietnam, has heightened awareness of the threat posed by th...
African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus, is a hemorrhagic and often fatal disease of domestic pigs and wild boar, which is notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health...
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182850.].
On August 3, 2018, an outbreak of African swine fever in pigs was reported in China. We subjected a virus from an African swine fever-positive pig sample to phylogenetic analysis. This analysis showed...
African swine fever (ASF) is a hemorrhagic and devastating infectious disease of pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), with mortality up to 100%. The first ASF outbreak occurred in China in...
The introduction of one dose of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules in OPV-only using countries as part of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative ...
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The primary purpose of this study is to demonstrate that a continuous infusion of intravenous (IV) heparin (UFH) for Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis will restore prophylactic leve...
Heparin is a blood thinner used to prevent blood clots in patients on a form of life-support called ECMO. Heparin can cause bleeding - the most common complication of ECMO. New materials u...
Intensive care unit patients have multiple risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Venous thromboembolism leads to significant morbidity and can be fatal. Unfractionated heparin and low...
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
An enterovirus infection of swine clinically indistinguishable from FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, vesicular stomatitis, and VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE. It is caused by a strain of HUMAN ENTEROVIRUS B.
Influenza or 'flu' is a respiratory illness associated with infection by influenza virus. Symptoms frequently include headache, fever, cough, sore throat, aching muscles and joints. There is a wide spectrum of severity of illness ranging from min...
Swine Flu - H1N1 influenza - H7N9
Swine flu is the common name given to a relatively new strain of influenza (flu) that caused a flu pandemic in 2009-2010. It is also referred to as H1N1 influenza (because it is the H1N1 strain of virus). The H1N1 flu virus will be one of the main vi...