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Detailed clonal phenotypic/genotypic analyses explored viral-escape mechanisms during maraviroc-based therapy in highly treatment-experienced participants from the MOTIVATE trials. To allow real-time assessment of samples while maintaining a blind trial, the first 267 enrolled participants were selected for evaluation. At failure, plasma samples from 20/50 participants (16/20 maraviroc-treated) with CXCR4-using virus and all 38 (13 maraviroc-treated) with CCR5-tropic virus were evaluated. Of those maraviroc-treated participants with CXCR4-using virus at failure, genotypic and phenotypic clonal tropism determinations showed >90% correspondence in 14/16 at Day 1 and 14/16 at failure. Phylogenetic analysis of clonal sequences detected pre-treatment progenitor CXCR4-using virus, or on-treatment virus highly divergent from the Day 1 R5 virus, excluding possible co-receptor switch through maraviroc-mediated evolution. Re-analysis of pre-treatment samples using the enhanced-sensitivity Trofile® assay detected CXCR4-using virus pre-treatment in 16/20 participants failing with CXCR4-using virus. Post-maraviroc reversion of CXCR4-use to CCR5-tropic occurred in 7/8 participants with follow-up, suggesting selective maraviroc inhibition of CCR5-tropic variants in a mixed-tropic viral population, not emergence of de novo mutations in CCR5-tropic virus, as the main virologic escape mechanism. Maraviroc-resistant CCR5-tropic virus was observed in plasma from 5 treated participants with virus displaying reduced maximal percent inhibition (MPI) but no evidence of IC50 change. Env clones with reduced MPI showed 1-5 amino acid changes specific to each V3-loop region of env relative to Day 1. However, transferring on-treatment resistance-associated changes using site-directed mutagenesis did not always establish resistance in Day 1 virus, and key 'signature' mutation patterns associated with reduced susceptibility to maraviroc were not identified. Evolutionary divergence of the CXCR4-using viruses is confirmed, emphasizing natural selection not influenced directly by maraviroc; maraviroc simply unmasks pre-existing lineages by inhibiting the R5 virus. For R5-viral failure, resistance development through drug selection pressure was uncommon and manifested through reduced MPI and with virus strain-specific mutational patterns.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200242.].
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The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The mechanism, in central lymphoid organs (THYMUS; BONE MARROW), that prevents immature lymphocytes from reacting to SELF-ANTIGENS. This is accomplished by CLONAL ANERGY and CLONAL DELETION.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...