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Clonal analysis of HIV-1 genotype and function associated with virologic failure in treatment-experienced persons receiving maraviroc: Results from the MOTIVATE phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled trials.

07:00 EST 26th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Clonal analysis of HIV-1 genotype and function associated with virologic failure in treatment-experienced persons receiving maraviroc: Results from the MOTIVATE phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled trials."

Detailed clonal phenotypic/genotypic analyses explored viral-escape mechanisms during maraviroc-based therapy in highly treatment-experienced participants from the MOTIVATE trials. To allow real-time assessment of samples while maintaining a blind trial, the first 267 enrolled participants were selected for evaluation. At failure, plasma samples from 20/50 participants (16/20 maraviroc-treated) with CXCR4-using virus and all 38 (13 maraviroc-treated) with CCR5-tropic virus were evaluated. Of those maraviroc-treated participants with CXCR4-using virus at failure, genotypic and phenotypic clonal tropism determinations showed >90% correspondence in 14/16 at Day 1 and 14/16 at failure. Phylogenetic analysis of clonal sequences detected pre-treatment progenitor CXCR4-using virus, or on-treatment virus highly divergent from the Day 1 R5 virus, excluding possible co-receptor switch through maraviroc-mediated evolution. Re-analysis of pre-treatment samples using the enhanced-sensitivity Trofile® assay detected CXCR4-using virus pre-treatment in 16/20 participants failing with CXCR4-using virus. Post-maraviroc reversion of CXCR4-use to CCR5-tropic occurred in 7/8 participants with follow-up, suggesting selective maraviroc inhibition of CCR5-tropic variants in a mixed-tropic viral population, not emergence of de novo mutations in CCR5-tropic virus, as the main virologic escape mechanism. Maraviroc-resistant CCR5-tropic virus was observed in plasma from 5 treated participants with virus displaying reduced maximal percent inhibition (MPI) but no evidence of IC50 change. Env clones with reduced MPI showed 1-5 amino acid changes specific to each V3-loop region of env relative to Day 1. However, transferring on-treatment resistance-associated changes using site-directed mutagenesis did not always establish resistance in Day 1 virus, and key 'signature' mutation patterns associated with reduced susceptibility to maraviroc were not identified. Evolutionary divergence of the CXCR4-using viruses is confirmed, emphasizing natural selection not influenced directly by maraviroc; maraviroc simply unmasks pre-existing lineages by inhibiting the R5 virus. For R5-viral failure, resistance development through drug selection pressure was uncommon and manifested through reduced MPI and with virus strain-specific mutational patterns.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PloS one
ISSN: 1932-6203
Pages: e0204099

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