Wait and you shall see: sexual delay discounting in hypersexual Parkinson's disease.

07:00 EST 22nd December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Wait and you shall see: sexual delay discounting in hypersexual Parkinson's disease."

Patients with Parkinson's disease may develop impulse control disorders under dopaminergic treatments. Impulse control disorders include a wide spectrum of behaviours, such as hypersexuality, pathological gambling or compulsive shopping. Yet, the neural systems engaged in specific impulse control disorders remain poorly characterized. Here, using model-based functional MRI, we aimed to determine the brain systems involved during delay-discounting of erotic rewards in hypersexual patients with Parkinson's disease (PD+HS), patients with Parkinson's disease without hypersexuality (PD - HS) and controls. Patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated ON and OFF levodopa (counterbalanced). Participants had to decide between two options: (i) wait for 1.5 s to briefly view an erotic image; or (ii) wait longer to see the erotic image for a longer period of time. At the time of decision-making, we investigated which brain regions were engaged with the subjective valuation of the delayed erotic reward. At the time of the rewarded outcome, we searched for the brain regions responding more robustly after waiting longer to view the erotic image. PD+HS patients showed reduced discounting of erotic delayed rewards, compared to both patients with Parkinson's disease and controls, suggesting that they accepted waiting longer to view erotic images for a longer period of time. Thus, when using erotic stimuli that motivate PD+HS, these patients were less impulsive for the immediate reward. At the brain system level, this effect was paralleled by the fact that PD+HS, as compared to controls and PD - HS, showed a negative correlation between subjective value of the delayed reward and activity of medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Consistent with the incentive salience hypothesis combining learned cue-reward associations with current relevant physiological state, dopaminergic treatment in PD+HS boosted excessive 'wanting' of rewards and heightened activity in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex, as reflected by higher correlation with subjective value of the option associated to the delayed reward when ON medication as compared to the OFF medication state. At the time of outcome, the anterior medial prefrontal/rostral anterior cingulate cortex showed an interaction between group (PD+HS versus PD - HS) and medication (ON versus OFF), suggesting that dopaminergic treatment boosted activity of this brain region in PD+HS when viewing erotic images after waiting for longer periods of time. Our findings point to reduced delay discounting of erotic rewards in PD+HS, both at the behavioural and brain system levels, and abnormal reinforcing effect of levodopa when PD+HS patients are confronted with erotic stimuli.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Brain : a journal of neurology
ISSN: 1460-2156


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [17261 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Waiting and working for rewards: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is associated with steeper delay discounting linked to amygdala activation, but not with steeper effort discounting.

Children and adolescents with ADHD have a relatively strong preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards (steep delay discounting). It is unknown whether such steep discounting...

Further Comparison of 5-Trial Adjusting Delay and Probability Loss Tasks Over a Wide Range of Amounts.

Researchers have recently developed brief methods to measure discounting. One brief method uses 5-trial adjusting-delay or -probability tasks. These tasks have provided similar rates of discounting to...

An investigation of delay and probability discounting in hoarding disorder.

Behavioral impulsivity may be a mechanism of hoarding disorder (HD). A commonly used and well-validated measure of impulsivity is the delay and probability discounting task, which consists of making d...

Delay discounting and e-cigarette use: An investigation in current, former, and never cigarette smokers.

Cigarette smokers show greater delay discounting (devaluation of delayed consequences) than non-smokers, suggesting that rapid devaluation of the future contributes to tobacco use through a mechanism ...

Experiencing regret about a choice helps children learn to delay gratification.

Children (6- and 7-year-olds) decided whether to wait for a short delay to win a prize or for a longer period to win a different prize. Those who chose to take their prize after a short delay won two ...

Clinical Trials [5863 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Deep Brain Stimulation and Parkinson's Disease

- Background : Deep brain stimulation of SubThalamic Nucleus (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for a large variety of movement disorders. However, the efficacy of STN-DBS reli...

MINDD 3: Prediabetes and Delay Discounting

The proposed research will translate research on delay discounting to the prevention of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in persons with prediabetes. In this study, the investigators will verify targ...

Prospective Thinking in Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer

One factor that limits the effectiveness of adjuvant hormone therapy for breast cancer is medication nonadherence. Adherence to long-term medication regimens requires valuation of temporal...

Neurobiological Underpinnings to Hypersexual Disorder

Hypersexual Disorder (HD), sometimes called "sexual addiction", is a disorder with intense sexual desires and psychological preoccupations that lead to out-of-control sexual activities wit...

Remediation of Elevated Delay Discounting in Mid-life Individuals

Many health-relevant decisions involve intertemporal (now vs. later) tradeoffs. Extensive literature indicates that many negative health and financial consequences suffered in mid-life are...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The tendency to devalue an outcome as a function of its temporal delay or probability of achievement. It can be evaluated in a psychological paradigm that involves the choice between receiving a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward, and may be used to provide a measure of impulsive behavior.

A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.

Proteins associated with sporadic or familial cases of PARKINSON DISEASE.

A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)

A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.

Quick Search


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Sexual Health
The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of sexual health; "the state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being related to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction and infirmity. Sexual health requires a posit...

Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's is a progressive neurological condition, affecting one person in every 500, 95% of which are over 40. It is caused by degeneration of more than 70% of the substantia nigra, which depletes the dopamine (the neurotransmitter involved in pro...

Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...

Searches Linking to this Article