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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an immunomodulatory enzyme, facilitates immune escape by tumors and promotes tumor progression. IDO inhibitors with and without additional anti-PD-1 therapy have been evaluated in recent and ongoing melanoma clinical trials, but IDO expression in melanoma tumors and therefore its potential role as a predictive biomarker remains unknown. This study sought to evaluate IDO expression in immunotherapy-naïve metastatic melanoma patients in order to determine patterns of expression in corresponding primary melanomas, locoregional metastases and distant metastases.
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Tryptophan (Trp) catabolizing enzymes play an important and complex role in the development of cancer. Significant evidence implicates them in a range of inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities....
Tryptophan (Trp) and kynurnine (Kyn) are a pair of biomarkers for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase which closely related to the tumor immune escape. To evaluate the effect of drugs on the indoleamine 2,3-d...
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme that metabolises tryptophan to immunosuppressive kynurenines. We investigated whether IDO activity is associated with the size of HIV r...
The interaction of multiple myeloma (MM) cells with macrophages (MΦs) contributes to the pathophysiology of MM. We previously showed that IL-32 is overexpressed in MM patients. The present study was ...
Intra-tumor heterogeneity (genotypic and functional diversity among cancer cells within the same tumor) represents one of the key challenges in cancer medicine. As heterogeneity of cancer cells consti...
This is a double blind Phase I study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of escalating oral doses of DN1406131, an investigational agent intended to inhibit the indo...
This is an open-label Phase I study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of escalating oral doses of NLG802, an investigational agent intended to inhibit the indoleam...
The purpose of his study is to investigate the intra tumor heterogeneity of the primary tumor and the involved lymph nodes from patients with resectable NSCLC, to detect primary tumor gene...
To study the multiple synchronous lung cancers (MSLCs) evolutionary genomic landscape among different sites and the dynamics of inter/intra-tumour heterogeneity over time combined with det...
To estimate the intra and inter-operator reproducibility of multiparametric regional PET-MRI mapping in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is a LIVER-specific enzyme that is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
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Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...