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Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species induce cell apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway in hyperoxia lung injury.

07:00 EST 28th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species induce cell apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway in hyperoxia lung injury."

Hyperoxia-induced lung injury limits the application of mechanical ventilation on rescuing the lives of premature infants and seriously ill and respiratory failure patients, and its mechanisms are not completely understood. In this article, we focused on the relationship between hyperoxia-induced lung injury and reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), mitochondria damage, as well as apoptosis in the pulmonary epithelial II cell line RLE-6TN. After exposure to hyperoxia, the cell viability was significantly decreased, accompanied by the increase in ROS, nitric oxide (NO), inflammatory cytokines, and cell death. Furthermore, hyperoxia triggered the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (▵Ψm), thereby promoting cytochrome c to release from mitochondria to cytoplasm. Further studies conclusively showed that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was enlarged to activate the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway after hyperoxia treatment. Intriguingly, the effects of hyperoxia on the level of ROS, NO and inflammation, mitochondrial damage, as well as cell death were reversed by free radical scavengers N-acetylcysteine and hemoglobin. In addition, a hyperoxia model of neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats presented the obvious characteristics of lung injury, such as a decrease in alveolar numbers, alveolar mass edema, and disorganized pulmonary structure. The effects of hyperoxia on ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis-related proteins in lung injury tissues of neonatal SD rats were similar to that in RLE-6TN cells. In conclusion, mitochondria are a primary target of hyperoxia-induced free radical, whereas ROS and RNS are the key mediators of hyperoxia-induced cell apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway in RLE-6TN cells.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Journal of cellular biochemistry
ISSN: 1097-4644
Pages:

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.

Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.

A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.

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A metabolic excess of REACTIVE NITROGEN SPECIES, including NITRIC OXIDE and PEROXYNITRITE, that leads to damaging effects of oxidation and nitration.

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