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Opium has been used in India since ancient times for social, recreational, religious and medicinal purposes. Opium users seem to constitute a distinct sub-population among opioid users, who have minimal complications, better functioning and socio-cultural acceptance. Prominent levels of stigma have been reported against people who use opioid drugs, but the same cannot be extrapolated to opium users. There is a vast number of opium users in India, and it is prudent to understand the stigma faced by them to better address their problems. Hence, in the current study we aimed to assess the internalized stigma and its correlates among opium users who seek treatment at a tertiary care drug treatment centre in North India. 117 adult male participants having opioid dependence (opium being the most common opioid in last 3 months) were assessed using Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale - Hindi version. The stigma scores were in the mild to moderate range, which was less than that found in previous studies among heroin and alcohol users in similar setting. Moreover, higher stigma scores were associated with lower educational status and higher proportions of income spent on substances. This is the first study to document stigma among opium users. Further research needs to be conducted to understand the determinants of stigma in this population.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Asian journal of psychiatry
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The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
Strong physiological and emotional dependence on OPIUM.
People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
A family of predominantly nuclear proteins that regulate gene transcription and protein degradation. The expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats in genes that encode Ataxins is associated with SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (SCA). In SCA patients, the number of CAG repeats correlates with the severity of disease and inversely correlates with the age of disease onset.
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...