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Mitochondria are the energy producing dynamic double-membraned organelles essential for cellular and organismal survival. A multitude of intra- and extra-cellular signals involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and cell fate determination converge on mitochondria to promote or prevent cell survival by modulating mitochondrial function and structure. Mitochondrial fitness is maintained by mitophagy, a pathway of selective degradation of dysfunctional organelles. Mitophagy impairment and altered clearance results in increased levels of dysfunctional and structurally aberrant mitochondria, changes in energy production, loss of responsiveness to intra- and extra-cellular signals and ultimately cell death. The decline of mitochondrial function and homeostasis with age is reported to be central to age-related pathologies. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy and cell death signalling and how their perturbation may contribute to ageing and age-related illness.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
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A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The cellular processes involved in adjustments to the MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME, content, and activity, that depend on the energy demands of the cell.
A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.
In vitro fertilization technique that uses mitochondrial DNA from a healthy donor in order to prevent the transmission of MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASE.