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Tacrolimus exhibits low and variable drug exposure after oral dosing, but the contributing factors remain unclear. Based on our recent report showing a positive correlation between fecal abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and oral tacrolimus dose in kidney transplant patients, we tested whether F. prausnitzii and other gut abundant bacteria are capable of metabolizing tacrolimus. Incubation of F. prausnitzii with tacrolimus led to production of two compounds (the major one named M1), which was not observed upon tacrolimus incubation with hepatic microsomes. Isolation, purification, and structure elucidation using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated that M1 is a C-9 keto-reduction product of tacrolimus. Pharmacological activity testing using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated that M1 is 15-fold less potent than tacrolimus as an immunosuppressant. Screening of 22 gut bacteria species revealed that most Clostridiales bacteria are extensive tacrolimus metabolizers. Tacrolimus conversion to M1 was verified in fresh stool samples from two healthy adults. M1 was also detected in the stool samples from kidney transplant recipients who had been taking tacrolimus orally. Together, this study presents gut bacteria metabolism as a previously unrecognized elimination route of tacrolimus, potentially contributing to the low and variable tacrolimus exposure after oral dosing.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals
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Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.
A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that TACROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
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