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Water exchange reactions around ionic solutes are ubiquitous in aqueous solution-phase chemistry. However, the extreme sensitivity of exchange rates to perturbations in the chemistry of an ionic solute is not well understood. We examine water exchange around model ions within the language of dynamic facilitation theory, typically used to describe glassy and other systems with collective, facilitated dynamics. Through the development of a coarse-grained, kinetically-constrained lattice model of water exchange, we show that the timescale for water exchange scales exponentially with the strength of the solute-solvent interactions.
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Name: The journal of physical chemistry. A
We revise three common models accounting for water exchange in pulsed-gradient spin-echo measurements: a bi-exponential model with time-dependent water fractions, the Kärger model, and a modified Kä...
Many urban indicators and functional citywide properties have been shown to scale with population due to agglomeration effects. We hypothesize that scaling relations may also exist for water-related u...
Although water exchange may improve adenoma detection when compared to CO, it is unclear whether water is a better medium to fill the lumen during withdrawal and visualize the mucosa. Total underwater...
Silica scaling of reverse osmosis membranes in brackish water desalination is less understood than hardness scaling due to the complex silica behaviors at the membrane/water interface. In this study, ...
Solvent exchange rates provide important information about the structural and dynamical properties of biomolecules. A large number of NMR experiments have been developed to measure such rates in prote...
This study evaluates how often patients without sedation that receive screening sigmoidoscopy are able to have their full colon examined without significant discomfort by comparing a new c...
Patients with colorectal adenomas are suggested to receive polypectomy. A substantial number of adenomas may be missed in patients with polyps found by previous colonoscopy. And water exch...
The investigators will review video-recordings of three randomized, controlled trials (NCT01535326, 01699399, and 01894191) comparing air insufflation, water immersion and water exchange d...
This is a study to compare two different, but normally, used methods of colonoscopy in patients undergoing colonoscopy without sedation. There will be two arms in this study: WE (water exc...
Colorectal cancer remains the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. The adenoma detection rate is correlated with quality of colonoscopy and risk of postcolonoscopy CRC. ...
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.