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The 'repurposed drug,' disulfiram (DSF), is an inexpensive FDA-approved anti-alcoholism drug with multi-target anti-cancer effect. However, the use of DSF in clinical settings remains limited due to its high instability in blood. In the present study, we created nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) encapsulated DSF modified with D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E-TPGS). A spherical shape, superior drug encapsulation (80.7%), and decreased crystallinity of DSF were confirmed with results obtained from TEM, XRD, and DSC analysis. Addition of TPGS considerably improved the physicochemical stability profile of NLC-encapsulated DSF under the different conditions tested here. Furthermore, TPGS-DSF-NLCs outperformed unmodified DSF-NLCs and the free DSF solution by having significantly higher cytotoxicity, lower IC50 value (4T1: 263.2 nM and MCF-7: 279.9 nM), and an enhanced cellular uptake in MCF7 and 4T1 cell lines. In vivo anti-tumor analysis in 4T1 murine xenograft model mice revealed a significant (p-value <0.05) decrease in tumor volume and higher tumor growth inhibition rate (48.24%) with TPGS-DSF-NLC treatment as compared to both the free DSF solution (8.49%) and DSF-NLC formulations (29.2%). Histopathology analysis of tumor tissues further confirmed a noticeably higher anti-tumor activity of TPGS-DSF-NLC through augmented cell necrosis in solid tumors. Hence, the present study established that addition of TPGS can synergize the anti-cancer activity of NLC-encapsulated DSF formulations, and thus, offer a promising anti-cancer delivery system for DSF.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of pharmaceutics
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A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
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