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Bupropion and varenicline are the top two smoking cessation interventions that are marginally successful in increasing abstinence rates when compared to placebo. Although smokers vary in their history and pattern of tobacco use, there is a significant gap in addressing this individual variability with individually targeted treatments. The present study takes the initial step towards a better understanding of individual differences in treatment outcomes by assessing the effect of bupropion or varenicline on nicotine self-administration in rats. Rats were first assessed for their individual economic demand for sucrose and then for self-administered nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/inf; 2 h sessions). We then examined the effect of bupropion (0, 10, 30, 60 mg/kg) or varenicline (0, 0.1, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) pretreatment on individual rates of nicotine self-administration using progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Thereafter, rats were subjected to four rounds of extinction and reinstatement tests. We found that individual demand for sucrose did not predict individual demand for nicotine. Acute pretreatments with bupropion or varenicline were most effective at decreasing nicotine self-administration in rats that had a higher demand for nicotine. Rats with higher demand for nicotine also showed higher magnitude of responding in extinction and during nicotine-triggered reinstatement tests. Although the acute treatment protocol employed in this study is an important initial step towards a better understanding of individual treatment effects, future research modeling chronic treatment approaches will be needed to further extend our findings.
This article was published in the following journal.
Varenicline is a smoking cessation pharmacotherapy with a presumed mechanism of action of partial efficacy at the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR); however, the extent to which daily va...
Simultaneous alcohol and nicotine consumption occurs in the majority of individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and nicotine dependence. Varenicline (Var) is used to assist in the cessation of nic...
Background Although pharmacotherapies are available for alcohol (EtOH) or tobacco use disorders individually, it may be possible to develop a single pharmacotherapy to treat heavy drinking tobacco smo...
Smokers that begin during adolescence are more likely to develop nicotine dependence than those who begin as adults. However, the factors that contribute to this remain largely unknown. Here we utiliz...
Non-adherence to pharmacotherapies complicates studies of comparative pharmacotherapy effectiveness. Modeling adherence and abstinence simultaneously may facilitate analysis of both treatment acceptab...
The objective of this proposal is to elucidate effects of bupropion SR + varenicline on smoking-cessation related processes in early abstinence using a human laboratory model. A within-su...
This study provides an opportunity to combine varenicline and bupropion SR and capitalize on the potential additive benefit. The investigators hypothesize that this will further increase ...
This study is being conducted to assess varenicline and bupropion as aids to smoking cessation treatment in subjects with and without an established diagnosis of major psychiatric disorder...
Objectives: 1. To evaluate the efficacy of varenicline plus bupropion (VB) vs. varenicline (V) or Placebo (P) alone for smoking cessation, 2. To evaluate the effects of VB...
Varenicline (Chantix™, Pfizer) is a novel selective nicotinic receptor partial agonist with specificity for the α4β2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor that has demonstrated remarkable ef...
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Differences in measurable biological values, characteristics, or traits, within one individual under different conditions for the individual such as fasting, season of the year, age, or state of wellness.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.