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Although commonly regarded as human and animal intestinal tract commensals, Enterococcus spp. have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens due to their intrinsic or acquired resistance to a number of antibiotics. Poultry has been suggested to be a reservoir for antibiotic resistance that may aggravate the problem of transmission of enterococci infections. Between January and December 2016, 106 Enterococcus spp. were isolated from a total of three poultry species. The collection included isolates recovered from chickens (n = 30), ducks (n = 35) and pigeons (n = 41). All enterococci isolates were screened for their ability to form biofilm. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined against 13 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. The presence of the eight resistance genes, vanA, vanB, vanC, catA, catB, fexA, fexB and cfr was determined by PCR. All 106 isolates were resistant to clindamycin, whereas majority of isolates (>90%) were resistant to erythromycin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and vancomycin. All isolates produced biofilms and were classified as extensive drug-resistant. MAR for all isolates was determined to be > 0.8, indicating that they have been recovered from high risk contamination sources. The cfr resistance gene was not detected in any of the 106 enterococci isolates, whereas the chloramphenicol resistance genes catA and catB were found in 18.9% (20/106) of the isolates. Interestengly, fexA 11.9% (15/106), fexB 8.7% (11/106), vanA 18.9% (20/106), vanB 25.5% (27/106), and vanC 33% (35/106) genes were also determined in our study. The present study highlights the emergence of a linezolid sensitive-vancomycin resistant enterococci, which lacks the cfr gene reporting also for the first time the detection of van, fex and cat -genes in Enterococcus species recovered from chickens, ducks and pigeons in Egypt suggesting that poultry species could be potential vectors for transmission of multidrug resistant enterococci posing a public health risk.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Microbial pathogenesis
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Strains of the genus Enterococcus that are resistant to the antibiotic VANCOMYCIN. The enterococci become resistant by acquiring plasmids carrying genes for VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
A species of Enterococcus that occurs in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT of birds and mammals, and to a lesser extent humans. Some strains cause diseases including DIARRHEA; BACTEREMIA; and ENDOCARDITIS in humans and animals.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...