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Autonomy (or self-determination) is a crucial construct in understanding adolescents' development and well-being. This paper presents current knowledge about the features of autonomy in learning, parental autonomy support, and psychological control, and their relations with psychological well-being and academic functioning of Chinese adolescents. Cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence supports the generalizability of Self-Determination Theory to Chinese adolescents. Cross-cultural evidence not only highlights similarities regarding the beneficial effects of autonomy in learning and autonomy support, and the detrimental effects of psychological control on well-being, but also demonstrates differences regarding these associations across Western and Chinese cultures. We conclude with recommendations for future research by focusing on specific profiles of self-determined regulation, more longitudinal studies focusing on the psychological processes underlying the associations between autonomy and development in Chinese adolescents, and conducting culturally sensitive research on parental psychological control.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: New directions for child and adolescent development
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Process in which individuals take the initiative, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying resources for learning, choosing and implementing learning strategies and evaluating learning outcomes (Knowles, 1975)
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.