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Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by Leishmania parasites is critical for the outcome of leishmaniasis, a disease that affects millions of people worldwide. We investigate the mechanisms involved in NLRP3 activation and demonstrate that caspase-11 (CASP11) is activated in response to infection by Leishmania species and triggers the non-canonical activation of NLRP3. This process accounts for host resistance to infection in macrophages and in vivo. We identify the parasite membrane glycoconjugate lipophosphoglycan (LPG) as the molecule involved in CASP11 activation. Cytosolic delivery of LPG in macrophages triggers CASP11 activation, and infections performed with Lpg1 parasites reduce CASP11/NLRP3 activation. Unlike bacterial LPS, purified LPG does not activate mouse CASP11 (or human Casp4) in vitro, suggesting the participation of additional molecules for LPG-mediated CASP11 activation. Our data identify a parasite molecule involved in CASP11 activation, thereby establishing the mechanisms underlying inflammasome activation in response to Leishmania species.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell reports
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Activation of caspase-4 and human caspase-5 (orthologs of caspase-11 in mice) in innate immune cells.
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Type of programmed cell death associated with infection by intracellular pathogens. It is characterized by INFLAMMASOME formation; activation of CASPASE 1; and CYTOKINES mediated inflammation.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 7; CASPASE 8; and CASPASE 10. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
An NLR protein that contains an N-terminal PYRIN DOMAIN and ATP-binding site and 9 C-terminal LEUCINE-rich repeats; it is expressed primarily by MACROPHAGES. It is a core component of the INFLAMMASOME and directs its assembly in response to pathogen infection and damage-associated stimuli. Mutations in the NLRP3 gene are associated with FAMILIAL COLD AUTOINFLAMMATORY SYNDROME.
Tropical Medicine is the study of diseases more commonly found in tropical regions than elsewhere. Examples of these diseases are malaria, yellow fever, Chagas disease, Dengue, Helminths, African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Lymphatic filaria...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...