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Standard treatment, unfortunately, yields a poor prognosis for patients with primary or metastatic cancers in the central nervous system, indicating a necessity for novel therapeutic agents. Immunotoxins (ITs) are a class of promising therapeutic candidates produced by fusing antibody fragments with toxin moieties. In this study, we investigated if inherent resistance to IT cytotoxicity can be overcome by rational combination with pro-apoptotic enhancers. Therefore, we combined ITs (9.2.27-PE38KDEL or Mel-14-PE38KDEL) targeting chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) with a panel of Bcl-2 family inhibitors (ABT-737, ABT-263, ABT-199 [Venetoclax], A-1155463, and S63845) against patient-derived glioblastoma, melanoma, and breast cancer cells/cell lines. In vitro cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the addition of the ABT compounds, specifically ABT-737, sensitized the different tumors to IT treatment, and improved the IC50 values of 9.2.27-PE38KDEL up to >1,000-fold. Mechanistic studies using 9.2.27-PE38KDEL and ABT-737 revealed that increased levels of intracellular IT, processed (active) exotoxin, and PARP cleavage correlated with the enhanced sensitivity to the combination treatment. Furthermore, we confirmed the synergistic effect of 9.2.27-PE38KDEL and ABT-737 combination therapy in orthotopic GBM xenograft and cerebral melanoma metastasis models in nude mice. Our study defines strategies for overcoming IT resistance and enhancing specific antitumor cytotoxicity in primary and metastatic brain tumors.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
Metastatic brain tumors and glioblastomas are the two of the most common brain neoplasms in adults. However, distinguishing solitary metastatic brain tumors from glioblastomas on conventional magnetic...
A favorable interplay between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) facilitates the outgrowth of metastatic tumors. Because of the distinct initiating processes between primary and metasta...
Should patients with newly diagnosed metastatic brain tumors undergo surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT)?
The problems associated with the pathologic distinction of primary ovarian mucinous tumors from their metastatic counterparts are well-recognized. Herein, we systematically evaluate a variety of gross...
Metastatic disease represents over half of all malignancies in brain parenchyma, and carcinoma when metastatic will often spread to the brain, with lung and breast tumors being the most common culprit...
RATIONALE: IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL immunotoxin may locate tumor cells and kill them without harming normal cells. This may be an effective treatment for recurrent malignant astrocytoma. ...
RATIONALE: Interleukin-4 PE38KDEL cytotoxin may be able to deliver cancer-killing substances directly to solid tumor cells. PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study the effectiveness of intravenou...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as temozolomide, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Collec...
RATIONALE: Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies can locate tumor cells and deliver radioactive tumor-killing substances to them without harming normal cells. This may be effective treatment ...
The primary goal of this project is to evidence potential synergistic benefits on cognitive control processes using a video game ("Body-Brain Trainer", or BBT) that integrates cognitive an...
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.
Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.
Mucocellular carcinoma of the ovary, usually metastatic from the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by areas of mucoid degeneration and the presence of signet-ring-like cells. It accounts for 30%-40% of metastatic cancers to the ovaries and possibly 1%-2% of all malignant ovarian tumors. The lesions may not be discovered until the primary disease is advanced, and most patients die of their disease within a year. In some cases, a primary tumor is not found. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1685)
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
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