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Many different adjuvants are currently being developed for subunit vaccines against a number of pathogens and diseases. Rational design is increasingly used to develop novel vaccine adjuvants, which requires extensive knowledge of, for example, the desired immune responses, target antigen-presenting cell subsets, their localization, and expression of relevant pattern-recognition receptors. The adjuvant mechanism of action and efficacy are usually evaluated in animal models, where mice are by far the most used. In this review, we present methods for assessing adjuvant efficacy and function in animal models: (1) whole-body biodistribution evaluated by using fluorescently and radioactively labeled vaccine components; (2) association and activation of immune cell subsets at the injection site, in the draining lymph node, and the spleen; (4) adaptive immune responses, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, various T-helper cell subsets, and antibody responses, which may be quantitatively evaluated using ELISA, ELISPOT, and immunoplex assays and qualitatively evaluated using flow cytometric and single cell sequencing assays; and (5) effector responses, for example, antigen-specific cytotoxic potential of CD8+ T cells and antibody neutralization assays. While the vaccine-induced immune responses in mice often correlate with the responses induced in humans, there are instances where immune responses detected in mice are not translated to the human situation. We discuss some examples of correlation and discrepancy between mouse and human immune responses and how to understand them.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ILAR journal
Vaccine adjuvants play an increasingly important role in the development of modern vaccines. Among of them, particle adjuvants have received wide attention due to their unique properties. In order to ...
The need for new adjuvants is absolutely cardinal to the development of new vaccines and to further optimizing current immunization approaches. However, only a few classes of adjuvants are presently i...
The porcine circovirus (PCV) is one of the most economically important infection diseases of pigs. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or Flic as an immune adjuvant has been show...
The review article presents the characteristics of the main adjuvant groups (mineral salts of aluminum, synthetic squalenebased adjuvants - MF59 and AS03, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides, virosomes, polyoxi...
As part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Pandemic Influenza Plan preparedness and response strategy, the National Pre-Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpile (NPIVS) program was ...
The main purpose of this study is to learn whether the study vaccine and the adjuvants(drugs that are used to help immune response) have an acceptable safety profile in treating individual...
The purpose of this study is to learn whether the study vaccine and adjuvants (drugs that are used to help improve immune responses) have an acceptable safety profile in treating individua...
This study evaluates whether it is safe to administer a peptide vaccine (6MHP) with adjuvants and the CDX-1127 monoclonal antibody, and whether the adjuvants and the CDX-1127 monoclonal an...
In this study, a melanoma vaccine (5 melanoma peptides) is given with either Montanide or dendritic cells as adjuvants. This randomized trial will establish the safety of both vaccines and...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of various formulations of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine with different adjuvants in healthy adult voluntee...
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
An approach, process, or methodology which emphasizes credible evidence and the best available scientific knowledge, judiciously integrated to achieve the best possible outcomes in structural design. For example, the design of a new OUTPATIENT CLINIC might incorporate a review of published research on outpatient clinic design, decisions on similar past projects, along with interviews with staff and consumers.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...