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Rational Design and In Vivo Characterization of Vaccine Adjuvants.

07:00 EST 9th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Rational Design and In Vivo Characterization of Vaccine Adjuvants."

Many different adjuvants are currently being developed for subunit vaccines against a number of pathogens and diseases. Rational design is increasingly used to develop novel vaccine adjuvants, which requires extensive knowledge of, for example, the desired immune responses, target antigen-presenting cell subsets, their localization, and expression of relevant pattern-recognition receptors. The adjuvant mechanism of action and efficacy are usually evaluated in animal models, where mice are by far the most used. In this review, we present methods for assessing adjuvant efficacy and function in animal models: (1) whole-body biodistribution evaluated by using fluorescently and radioactively labeled vaccine components; (2) association and activation of immune cell subsets at the injection site, in the draining lymph node, and the spleen; (4) adaptive immune responses, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, various T-helper cell subsets, and antibody responses, which may be quantitatively evaluated using ELISA, ELISPOT, and immunoplex assays and qualitatively evaluated using flow cytometric and single cell sequencing assays; and (5) effector responses, for example, antigen-specific cytotoxic potential of CD8+ T cells and antibody neutralization assays. While the vaccine-induced immune responses in mice often correlate with the responses induced in humans, there are instances where immune responses detected in mice are not translated to the human situation. We discuss some examples of correlation and discrepancy between mouse and human immune responses and how to understand them.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: ILAR journal
ISSN: 1930-6180
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