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Children with autism receive different types of non-drug treatments. We aimed to describe caregiver-reported pattern of care and its variability by geography and healthcare coverage in a US-wide sample of children aged 3-17 years. We recruited caregivers from the Simons Foundation Powering Autism Research for Knowledge (SPARK) cohort. Two online questionnaires (non-drug treatment, Autism Impact Measure) were completed in September/October 2017. Primary outcome measures were caregiver-reported types and intensities of treatments (behavioral, developmental/relationship, speech and language (SLT), occupational, psychological, "other"; parent/caregiver training) in the previous 12 months. Main explanatory variables were geography and type of healthcare coverage. We investigated associations between the type/intensity of treatments and geography (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan) or coverage (Medicaid vs privately insured by employer) using regression analysis. Caregivers (n = 5,122) were mainly mothers (92.1%) with mean (SD) age of 39.0 (7.3) years. Mean child age was 9.1 (3.9) years; mostly males (80.0%). Almost all children received at least one intervention (96.0%). Eighty percent received SLT or occupational therapy, while 52.0% received both. Behavioral therapy and SLT were significantly more frequent and more intense in metropolitan than in nonmetropolitan areas. No consistently significant associations were seen between healthcare coverage and frequency or intensity of interventions. At least one barrier such as "waiting list" and "no coverage" was reported by 44.8%. In conclusion, in children sampled from SPARK, we observed differences between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, while we did not find significant differences between those privately insured versus Medicaid. Autism Research 2019. © 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY
The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry recommends the use of multiple treatment modalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We wanted to understand what types of treatment children (aged 3-17 years) with ASD receive in the United States, how and where the treatments take place and for how long. We invited caregivers from Simons Foundation Powering Autism Research for Knowledge ("SPARK ," https://sparkforautism.org/) to complete the study questions online. Participants reported on utilization of conventional, non-drug treatments for ASD, including behavioral interventions, developmental/relationship interventions, speech and language therapy (SLT), occupational therapy, psychological therapy, and parent/caregiver training. People that completed the study (n = 5,122) were primarily mothers of the child with ASD (92%); most of the children were boys (80%). The ASD care for the child was mostly coordinating by the mother. Almost all children received at least some type of non-drug therapies (96%), most often SLT and/or occupational therapy, mainly provided in school. Behavioral therapy was most often received in public school in rural areas, while at home in urban areas. We saw less use of behavioral therapy and SLT in rural areas, but overall comparable use between children covered by Medicaid and those covered by private insurance. Almost half the caregivers reported at least one barrier to treatment, such as "waiting list" and "no coverage." More than half said that their child benefited "much" or "very much" from the therapies received. While overall non-drug treatment rates for children with ASD were high in the United States in our study, differences existed depending on where the family lives; not only regarding the type of therapy, but also where it takes place.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
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A childhood disorder predominately affecting boys and similar to autism (AUTISTIC DISORDER). It is characterized by severe, sustained, clinically significant impairment of social interaction, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. In contrast to autism, there are no clinically significant delays in language or cognitive development. (From DSM-IV)
A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.
The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.
The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.
The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.
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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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