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Archaea-a primary domain of life besides Bacteria-have for a long time been regarded as peculiar organisms that play marginal roles in biogeochemical nutrient cycles. However, this picture changed with the discovery of a large diversity of archaea in non-extreme environments enabled by the use of cultivation-independent methods. These approaches have allowed the reconstruction of genomes of uncultivated microorganisms and revealed that archaea are diverse and broadly distributed in the biosphere and seemingly include a large diversity of putative symbiotic organisms, most of which belong to the tentative archaeal superphylum referred to as DPANN. This archaeal group encompasses at least 10 different lineages and includes organisms with extremely small cell and genome sizes and limited metabolic capabilities. Therefore, many members of DPANN may be obligately dependent on symbiotic interactions with other organisms and even include novel parasites. In this contribution, we review the current knowledge of the gene repertoires and lifestyles of members of this group and discuss their placement in the tree of life, which is the basis for our understanding of the deep microbial roots and the role of symbiosis in the evolution of life on Earth.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: FEMS microbiology letters
I suggest -as a criterion for identifying the root of the tree of life - that the group of organisms with the greatest molecular variability in phylogenetic deep characters represents the root of this...
Methane is a key compound in the global carbon cycle that influences both nutrient cycling and the Earth's climate. A limited number of microorganisms control the flux of biologically generated methan...
Genes originate at different evolutionary time scales and possess different ages, accordingly presenting diverse functional characteristics and reflecting distinct adaptive evolutionary innovations. I...
Of the six known autotrophic pathways, the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WL) is the only one present in both the acetate producing Bacteria (homoacetogens) and the methane producing Archaea (hydrogenotrophi...
The Arava Valley in is a rock desert within the Great African Rift valley. Soil from this area is covered with a salt crust. Here, we report microbial diversity from arid, naturally saline samples col...
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This study examines the role of sleep apnea treatment in improving cardiovascular biomarkers.
Samples will be collected to determine human genetic variation, fecal and oral microbial communities, and metabolome products. Several evolutionary and ecological diversity metrics will be...
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA, comprising thermophilic organisms from the hot spring Obsidian Pool (Yellowstone National Park) that are among the most primitive of all life forms. They have undergone comparatively little evolutionary change since the last common ancestor of all extant life. (From ASM News, 1996; 62(9):468-9)
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.
The systematic study of annotated genomic information to global protein expression in order to determine the relationship between genomic sequences and both expressed proteins and predicted protein sequences.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...