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The microbiome modulates host immune function across the gastrointestinal tract, peripheral lymphoid organs, and central nervous system. In this review, we highlight emerging evidence that microbial effects on select immune phenotypes arise developmentally, where the maternal and neonatal microbiome influence immune cell ontogeny in the offspring during gestation and early postnatal life. We further discuss roles for the perinatal microbiome and early-life immunity in regulating normal neurodevelopmental processes. In addition, we examine evidence that abnormalities in microbiota-neuroimmune interactions during early life are associated with altered risk of neurological disorders in humans. Finally, we conclude by evaluating the potential implications of microbiota-immune interventions for neurological conditions. Continued progress toward dissecting mechanistic interactions between the perinatal microbiota, immune system, and nervous system might uncover fundamental insights into how developmental interactions across physiological systems inform later-life health and disease.
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In ecological terms, the microbiome is defined as the microbiota and its environment, a definition that encompasses the human host. The size, species composition, and biogeography of microbial communi...
The human microbiome is an emerging target in cancer development and therapeutics. It may be directly oncogenic, through promotion of mucosal inflammation or systemic dysregulation, or may alter anti-...
Host-microbiome interactions constitute key determinants of host physiology, while their dysregulation is implicated in a wide range of human diseases. The microbiome undergoes diurnal variation in co...
In animal models, the early life gut microbiome influences later neurodevelopment. Corresponding data in human populations are lacking.
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) accounts for a significant proportion of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is gaining much interest as a useful tool in differentiating...
A prospective cohort study investigating the effect of the formation of gut microbiome on the neonatal disease and the prognosis of neurodevelopment in preterm infants.
The investigators have studied the acute interactions of polyphenols and NDC in a single meal in a human study containing tomatoes, lovage & onions, with and without inulin. The investigat...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the microbiome of medicated and non-medicated subjects diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. Where available, in comparison to the microbiome of a he...
The project presented here will be the first prospective, randomized evaluation of the effect of ART on the structure and function of the gut microbiome. This study provides a unique oppor...
Background: Adequate levels of beneficial nutrients are important for neurodevelopment. Although, nutrients are ingested in combination, considering nutrients as a mixture has not been stu...
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
All of the microbial organisms that naturally exist within the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...