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Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) represents a brain dysfunction caused by both acute and chronic liver failure, and its severity deeply affects the prognosis of patients with impaired liver function. In its pathophysiology, ammonia levels and glutamatergic system hyperactivity seem to play a pivotal role in the disruption of brain homeostasis. Here, we investigate important outcomes involved in behavioral performance, electroencephalographic patterns, and neurochemical parameters to better characterize the well-accepted animal model of acute liver failure induced by subtotal hepatectomy (92% removal of tissue) that produces acute liver failure (ALF). This study was divided into three cohorts: (1) rats clinically monitored after hepatectomy every 6 hours for 96 hours or until death; (2) rats tested in an open field task (OFT) before and after surgery and had blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue collected after the last OFT; and (3) rats that had continuous EEGs recorded before and after surgery for 3 days. The hepatectomized rats presented significant motor behavioral changes accompanied by important abnormalities in classical blood laboratory parameters of ALF, and EEG features suggestive of HE and deep disturbances in the brain glutamatergic system. Using an animal model of ALF induced via subtotal hepatectomy, this work provides a comprehensive and reliable experimental model that increases the opportunity for studying the effects of new treatment strategies to be explored in an unprecedented way. It also presents insights into the pathophysiology of HE in a reproducible model of ALF, which correlates important neurochemical and EEG aspects of the syndrome.
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The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) treatment on the anxiety related behavioral and neurochemical alterations. AA (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) was adminis...
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of Deep Oscillation (DO) self-treatment on recovery after fatiguing soccer training. We investigate deep oscillation (DO) self treatmen...
Exposure to lead during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood increases the individual likelihood of impaired school performance, increased impulsiveness, aggression, and delinquent behavior. ...
Placebo controlled trial study of efficacy of Kinetic Oscillation Stimulation (KOS) in nasal cavity will be conducted in patients with myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (M...
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Adjustment of BRAIN WAVES from two or more neuronal groups within or across a brain structure (e.g., cortical and limbic brain structures) to become uniform in EEG oscillation patterns in response to a stimulus. It is interpreted as a brain integration sign during many processes such as learning, memory, and perception and involves reciprocal neural connections.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...