Advertisement

Topics

Oxysterols and nuclear receptors.

07:00 EST 17th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Oxysterols and nuclear receptors."

Oxysterols are derivatives of cholesterol and an important regulator of cholesterol metabolism, in part due to their role as ligands for nuclear receptors, such as the liver x receptors. Oxysterols are also known to be ligands for the RAR-related orphan receptors, involved in normal T cell differentiation. However, increasing evidence supports a role for oxysterols in the progression of several diseases. Here, we review recent developments in oxysterol research, highlighting the biological functions that oxysterols exert through their target nuclear receptors: the liver x receptors, estrogen receptors RAR-related orphan receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. We also bring the regulation of the immune system into the context of interaction between oxysterols and nuclear receptors, discussing the effect of such interaction on the pro-inflammatory function of macrophages and the development of T cells. Finally, we examine the impact that oxysterols have on various disease models, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis, stressing the role of nuclear receptors if previously identified. This review underscores the need to consider the multifaceted roles of oxysterols in terms of multiple receptor engagements and selective modulation of these receptors.

Affiliation

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Molecular and cellular endocrinology
ISSN: 1872-8057
Pages:

Links

DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [5757 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Quantification of Oxysterol Nuclear Receptor Ligands by LC/MS/MS.

Oxidative derivatives of cholesterol such as 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and (25S),26-hydroxycholesterol are endogenous ligands for the liver X receptors...

The Effects of Cholesterol-Derived Oncometabolites on Nuclear Receptor Function in Cancer.

Epidemiologic studies are controversial concerning the roles played by cholesterol in cancer risk and development, possibly as it is not cholesterol per se that is pathologic in cancers. Indeed, recen...

Saponins as modulators of nuclear receptors.

As plant-derived natural products, saponins have been widely applied for the dietary modification of metabolic syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms of their preventive and therapeutic effects ...

Oxysterols as a biomarker in diseases.

Cholesterol is one of the most important chemical substances as a structural element in human cells, and it is very susceptible to oxidation reactions that form oxysterol. Oxysterols exhibit almost th...

Effects of simvastatin on nuclear receptors, drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters expression in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

Vascular endothelial cells (EC) are constantly exposed to endo- and exogenous compounds, which may disturb EC function. One of the protecting mechanisms against chemicals consists of drug metabolizing...

Clinical Trials [891 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Oxidative Stress and Oxysterols Profiling in Patients With Carotid Revascularization

The combination of aspirin and dipyridamole, two antiplatelet drugs, is approved in Italy for the secondary prevention of cerebral embolism in patients with carotid atherosclerosis. Besid...

Study of Dendrogenin A / Oxysterols Balance Between Healthy Volunteers and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients

Dendrogenin A is present in mammals normal tissues and fluids, notably blood. It is down-represented or absent in cancer cell lines and tumors. In the opposite, OCDO is accumulated in canc...

A Study to Evaluate a New Way to Identify/Diagnose Tumours With Somatostatin Receptors Using [68]Ga-HA-DOTATATE and to Ensure it is Safe to Use

A [68]Ga-HA-DOTATATE PET/CT scan is a nuclear medicine test used to create pictures of the whole body that will show where somatostatin receptors are found, including on tumours. Somatosta...

Liver X Receptor (LXR) as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)

Results from large clinical trials demonstrate a strong association between lipid abnormalities and progression of the most common microvascular complication, diabetic retinopathy (DR). We...

Serotonin Receptors in Seizure Disorders

Patients in this study will undergo PET scans (a type of nuclear imaging test) to look for abnormalities in certain brain proteins associated with seizures. Studies in animals have shown ...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Nuclear receptors that bind OXYSTEROLS and function as heterodimers with RETINOID X RECEPTORS. They have important functions in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, ENERGY METABOLISM; INFLAMMATION; and the immune response.

A nuclear co-repressor protein that shows specificity for RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. The dissociation of this co-repressor from nuclear receptors is generally ligand-dependent, but can also occur by way of its phosphorylation by members of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. The protein contains two nuclear receptor interaction domains and four repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 1.

A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.

Proteins that enhance gene expression when associated with ligand bound activated NUCLEAR RECEPTORS. The coactivators may act through an enzymatic process that affects the rate of transcription or the structure of chromatin. Alternatively nuclear receptor coactivators can function as adaptor proteins that bring nuclear receptors into close proximity with transcriptional complexes.

A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in the transcriptional activation of chromatin regions.

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topic

Hepatology
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...


Searches Linking to this Article