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Contributions by the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System to Memory, Cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease.

07:00 EST 14th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Contributions by the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System to Memory, Cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease."

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive neuron losses in memory-associated brain structures that rob patients of their dignity and quality of life. Five drugs have been approved by the FDA to treat AD but none modify or significantly slow disease progression. New therapies are needed to delay the course of this disease with the ultimate goal of preventing neuron losses and preserving memory functioning. In this review we describe the renin-angiotensin II (AngII) system (RAS) with specific regard to its deleterious contributions to hypertension, facilitation of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, reduced cerebral blood flow, tissue remodeling, and disruption of memory consolidation and retrieval. There is evidence that components of the RAS, AngIV and Ang(1-7), are positioned to counter such damaging influences and these systems are detailed with the goal of drawing attention to their importance as drug development targets. Ang(1-7) binds at the Mas receptor, while AngIV binds at the AT4 receptor subtype, and these receptor numbers are significantly decreased in AD patients, accompanied by declines in brain aminopeptidases A and N, enzymes essential for the synthesis of AngIV. Potent analogs may be useful to counter these changes and facilitate neuronal functioning and reduce apoptosis in memory associated brain structures of AD patients.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD
ISSN: 1875-8908
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.

A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.

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A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.

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