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Vascular calcification occurs when calcium phosphate crystals are abnormally deposited in the vessel walls, thus hardening and narrowing the arteries. This condition is commonly observed in patients with diseases such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Despite many studies being conducted, the molecular mechanism involved in vascular calcification is unknown. From recent studies, it is clear that several types of noncoding RNAs are involved in human diseases. It has also been shown that the noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs, are involved in the progression of vascular calcification. With the development of therapeutic approaches based on the manipulation of noncoding RNAs, it is speculated that the modulation of these molecules could be another strategy to treat vascular calcification in the future. In this review, we summarize the roles of various noncoding RNAs in vascular calcification and the technologies to modulate the noncoding RNAs for therapeutic purpose.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Archives of pharmacal research
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Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
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