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Bacteria play an important role in the reclamation of mudflats. However, little is known about the effects of long-term rice cultivation on bacterial communities in mudflats. In this study, the bacterial community in mudflats with long-term rice cultivation was evaluated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We found that the soil enzyme activity in mudflat soil demonstrated an overall increasing trend with an increase in rice planting years, while polyphenol oxidase activity decreased. There were significant differences in the microbial community composition between mudflat and paddy soil. There were high proportions of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in mudflat soil, while the predominant phyla in paddy soil were Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria. The dominant taxa were significantly correlated with electrical conductivity, organic matter, and total nitrogen. In addition, the proportion of Fe- and S-related bacteria in paddy soil was much higher than that of mudflat soil, including Anaeromyxobacter, Geobacter, Thiobacillus, Clostridium, and GOUTA19. Furthermore, the proportion of some nitrogen cycle-related bacteria (e.g., Nitrospira, Steroidobacter, Rhodoplanes) and some carbohydrate-degrading bacteria (e.g., Anaerolinea, Candidatus Solibacter) also increased with long-term rice cultivation in mudflat soil. These key microbial players are involved in the biogeochemical C, N, S, and Fe cycles of mudflat paddy soil during mudflat reclamation by rice cultivation. In short, the orderly succession of the bacterial community changed with the change of soil physical-chemical properties during long-term rice cultivation. In addition, key microbial players have a beneficial ecological function in enhancing soil fertility.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current microbiology
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An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of adenylate cyclase. EC 2.7.1.-.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
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