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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a detrimental condition for human pregnancy associated with endothelial dysfunction and endothelial inflammation in the fetoplacental vasculature and leads to increased cardio-metabolic risk in the offspring. In the fetoplacental vasculature, GDM is associated with altered adenosine metabolism. Adenosine is an important vasoactive molecule and is an intermediary and final product of transmethylation reactions in the cell. Adenosine kinase is the major regulator of adenosine levels. Disruption of this enzyme is associated with alterations in methylation-dependent gene expression regulation mechanisms, which are associated with the fetal programming phenomenon. Here we propose that cellular and molecular alterations associated with GDM can dysregulate adenosine kinase leading to fetal programming in the fetoplacental vasculature. This can contribute to the cardio-metabolic long-term consequences observed in offspring after exposure to GDM.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
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A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
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