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The organic toxicants formed in chlorinated water cause potential harm to human beings, and it is extensively concentrated all over the world. Various disinfection by-products (DBPs) occur in chlorinated water are genotoxic and carcinogenic. The toxicity is major concern for chlorinated DBPs which has been present more in potable water. The purpose of the work was to evaluate genotoxic properties of DBPs in Allium cepa as a plant model system. The chromosomal aberration and DNA laddering assays were performed to examine the genotoxic effect of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), trichloromethane (TCM), and tribromomethane (TBM) in a plant system with distinct concentrations, using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as positive control and tap water as negative control. In Allium cepa root growth inhibition test, the inhibition was concentration dependent, and EC values for trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), trichloromethane (TCM), and tribromomethane (TBM) were 100 mg/L, 160 mg/L, and 120 mg/L respectively. In the chromosome aberration assay, root tip cells were investigated after 120 h exposure. The bridge formation, sticky chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, fragmented chromosome, c-anaphase, and multipolarity chromosomal aberrations were seen in anaphase-telophase cells. It was noticed that with enhanced concentrations of DBPs, the total chromosomal aberrations were more frequent. The DNA damage was analyzed in roots of Allium cepa exposed with DBPs (TCAA, TCM, TBM) by DNA laddering. The biochemical assays such as lipid peroxidation, HO content, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase were concentration dependent. The DNA interaction studies were performed to examine binding mode of TCAA, TCM, and TBM with DNAs. The DNA interaction was evaluated by spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric studies which revealed that TCAA, TCM, and TBM might interact with Calf thymus DNA (CT- DNA) by non-traditional intercalation manner.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science and pollution research international
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