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The current literature about pharmaceutical and personal care compounds (PPCPs) focuses on identifying their concentration and toxicological risk both in surface water and in wastewater. However, the influence of urban areas (population ageing, income level, hospitals and others) has not yet been analysed. Knowing how a population (and its facilities) affects PPCPs' presence in wastewater is important to identify the conditions that are responsible for their presence. In this work, the influence of water consumption, population ageing, income level, hospitals and nursing homes on the anti-inflammatory concentration have been analysed. To fill the gap between the quantitative data on PPCPs' concentration and the qualitative reasoning of the influence of urban areas on the anti-inflammatory concentration, the use of fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) is proposed. The fsQCA results are presented as recipes that show the different causal combinations of conditions that explain the presence of anti-inflammatories in wastewater. Using fsQCA for urban wastewater management with the aim of explaining the presence of anti-inflammatories in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a novelty in the literature. The results obtained here show the influence of water consumption (WATCON), hospitals (HOSP) and population ageing (POPAG) as the main conditions for the anti-inflammatory concentration in Valèncian wastewater. Specifically, these conditions are present in all the recipes obtained with consistency of 99%. Through the results obtained, it would be possible to identify that HOSP are the main facilities that discharge anti-inflammatories into urban wastewater. Hence, the necessity of preventive measures to avoid the anti-inflammatory discharge into water bodies has been showed. Furthermore, under a methodological point of view, this work highlights the eligibility of fsQCA as a wastewater cycle management tool.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL) similar in mode of action to INDOMETHACIN.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are not steroids. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions. They are used primarily in the treatment of chronic arthritic conditions and certain soft tissue disorders associated with pain and inflammation. They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects. Certain NSAIDs also may inhibit lipoxygenase enzymes or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES or may modulate T-cell function. (AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p 1814-5)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with potent analgesic and antiarthritic properties. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of OSTEOARTHRITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; ankylosing SPONDYLITIS; and in the alleviation of postoperative pain (PAIN, POSTOPERATIVE).