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High efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have experienced rapid development and attracted significant attention in recent years. However, instability to ambient environment such as moisture is a facile challenge for application of perovskite solar cells. Herein, 1,8-octanediammonium iodide (ODAI) is employed to construct a 2D modified interface by in situ combined with residual PbI2 on the Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) perovskite surface. The ODA2+ is seem to lie horizontally on the surface of 3D perovskite due to its substitution for two FA+, which could protect the bulk perovskite more effectively. The unencapsulated perovskite solar cells showed notably improved stability, which remained 92% of its initial efficiency after storage in ambient environment for 120 days. In addition, a higher open circuit voltage of 1.13 V compared to that of control device (1.04 V) was obtained due to the interface energy level modification and defect passivation. A champion power conversion efficiency of 21.18% was therefore obtained with a stabilized power output of 20.64% at the maximum power point for planar perovskite solar cells.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS applied materials & interfaces
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The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere. It is produced continuously by the action of solar ULTRAVIOLET RAYS on oxygen in the stratosphere. The stratospheric ozone (especially at the ozone layer) blocks much of the solar UV radiation of wavelengths of 320 nanometers or less from being transmitted to lower ATMOSPHERE of the Earth.
Changing an operative procedure from an endoscopic surgical procedure to an open approach during the INTRAOPERATIVE PERIOD.
Selective grinding of occlusal surfaces of the teeth in an effort to eliminate premature contacts and occlusal interferences; to establish optimal masticatory effectiveness, stable occlusal relationships, direction of main occlusal forces, and efficient multidirectional patterns, to improve functional relations and to induce physiologic stimulation of the masticatory system; to eliminate occlusal trauma; to eliminate abnormal muscle tension; to aid in the stabilization of orthodontic results; to treat periodontal and temporomandibular joint problems; and in restorative procedures. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.