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Epithelial tissues contain three-dimensional (3D) complex microtopographies that are essential for proper performance. These microstructures provide cells with the physicochemical cues needed to guide their self-organization into functional tissue structures. However, most in vitro models do not implement these 3D architectural features. The main problem is the availability of simple fabrication techniques that can reproduce the complex geometries found in native tissues on the soft polymeric materials required as cell culture substrates. In this study reaction-diffusion mediated photolithography is used to fabricate 3D microstructures with complex geometries on poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels in a single step and moldless approach. By controlling fabrication parameters such as the oxygen diffusion/depletion timescales, the distance to the light source and the exposure dose, the dimensions and geometry of the microstructures can be well-defined. In addition, copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) with acrylic acid improves control of the dynamic reaction-diffusion processes that govern the free-radical polymerization of highly-diluted polymeric solutions. Moreover, acrylic acid allows adjusting the density of cell adhesive ligands while preserving the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. The method proposed is a simple, single-step, and cost-effective strategy for producing models of intestinal epithelium that can be easily integrated into standard cell culture platforms.
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Liquid-solid transition is widely used strategy to shape polymeric materials and encode their microstructures. However, it is still challenging to fully exploit liquid behaviors of materials precursor...
Photoresponsive hydrogels have become invaluable 3D culture matrices for mimicking aspects of the extracellular matrix. Recent efforts have focused on using ultraviolet (UV) light exposure and multifu...
In this work, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) based chemically cross-linked hydrogels are used as novel precipitation and stabilization media for solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for the first ti...
The anti-digestive features given to hydrogels can prolong their action time in gut environment; however, these types of hydrogels have rarely been reported. Inspired by indigestibility of dietary fib...
Hydrogels are commonly used as artificial extracellular matrices for 3D cell culture and for tissue engineering. Viscoelastic hydrogels with tunable stress relaxation have recently been developed, and...
Clinical study of patients with a history of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations to test the hypothesis that the arthroscopic dynamic anterior capsular stabilization technique with tr...
The study is designed to evaluate and validate impact factors to success and complication using ultrasound guided short-axis out-of-plane dynamic approach, and validate the impaction.
The main objective of this study is to compare on day 0 the maximum Lyapunov exponent (lmax, an indicator of local dynamic stability) of chronic low back pain patients versus that of healt...
Placement of dental implants via the freehand approach may result in damage to the surrounding critical anatomy of undiscordant prosthetic position. A real-time navigational stereotaxic su...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of different contact lens edge designs on the conjunctiva.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
A nondirective psychotherapy approach originated by Carl Rogers. The goals of therapy are to promote the client’s congruence, self awareness, and self acceptance. This approach views the client as naturally directed toward self actualization, and only needing facilitative conditions in order to promote this tendency.
Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Macroporous hydrogels that are produced at subzero temperatures. Cryogels have pores that are produced by growing ice crystals and have been developed with a tissue-like elasticity that is suitable for cell immunization experiments.
Types of Cell Culture Open https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGKoJRNKADY to view video on cell culture basics. Four catagories of cell culture techniques are listed below: Adherent cells Cells shown to require attachment for growth are sa...