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Stress-induced inhibition of innate immune activity has been observed in a variety of wild birds and may increase chances of infection because this activity constitutes the first line of defense against pathogens. We previously reported that the transient elevation of plasma corticosterone (CORT; the primary avian glucocorticoid) that occurs during stress is necessary for stress-induced suppression of natural antibody-mediated, complement-mediated, and bactericidal activity. Here, we further investigated the regulatory role of CORT during this suppression. To this end, we treated House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) with mitotane to block endogenous CORT production, administered CORT at one of three doses (
vehicle), and assessed natural antibody-mediated, complement-mediated, and bactericidal activity during acute stress induced by handling and restraint. Mitotane administration eliminated the endogenous plasma CORT increase that normally takes place during stress, and corticosterone treatment increased plasma CORT to levels similar to those measured in intact birds during acute stress. As predicted, mitotane-treated birds receiving CON injections did not exhibit stress-induced suppression of complement-mediated and bactericidal activity, and CORT administration at both LO and HI doses restored this suppression. Contrary to expectations, mitotane-treated birds receiving CON injections demonstrated stress-induced suppression of natural antibody-mediated activity. Furthermore, CORT administration did not influence this parameter. These results suggest that stress inhibits innate immune activity through both CORT-dependent and CORT-independent mechanisms, but the contribution of these mechanisms can vary. This variation may result from effects of environmental factors, the identity and role of which warrant further research.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: General and comparative endocrinology
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A secretory proteinase inhibitory protein that was initially purified from human SKIN. It is found in a variety mucosal secretions and is present at high levels in SPUTUM. Elafin may play a role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of the LUNG.
Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.
Cytosolic signaling adaptor proteins that were initially discovered by their role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of organisms that lack an adaptive immune system. This class of proteins contains three domains, a C-terminal ligand recognition domain, an N-terminal effector-binding domain, and a centrally located nuclear-binding oligomerization domain. Many members of this class contain a C-terminal leucine rich domain which binds to PEPTIDOGLYCAN on the surface of BACTERIA and plays a role in pathogen resistance.
A structurally diverse group of endogenous molecules that are multifunctional, having physiological functions inside the cell, but when released from dying cells or from cells under stress or certain immune cells, they function to activate INNATE IMMUNITY. Uncontrolled and excessive release of alarmins may contribute to INFLAMMATION; CARCINOGENESIS, and NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Alarmins are also critical for heart and nerve tissue homeostasis.
An SH2 domain-containing non-receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates signal transduction downstream of a variety of receptors including B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. It functions in both INNATE IMMUNITY and ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY and also mediates signaling in CELL ADHESION; OSTEOGENESIS; PLATELET ACTIVATION; and vascular development.
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