Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The chloroplast organelle in mesophyll cells of higher plants represents a sunlight driven metabolic factory that eventually fuels life on our planet. Knowledge of the ultrastructure and the dynamics of this unique organelle is essential to understanding its function in an ever-changing and challenging environment. Recent technological developments promise unprecedent insights in the chloroplast architecture and its functionality. The review highlights these new methodical approaches and provides structural models based on recent findings about the plasticity of the thylakoid membrane system in response to different light regimes. Furthermore, the potential role of the lipid droplets plastoglobuli is discussed. It is emphasized that detailed structural insights are necessary on different levels ranging from molecules to entire membrane systems for a holistic understanding of chloroplast function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The New phytologist
Atrazine is an ingredient in photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides and has been widely used to combat weeds in farmland. However, most atrazine that is applied fails to degrade in the soil and subseque...
The large majority of core photosynthesis proteins in plants are encoded by nuclear genes, but a small portion has been retained in the plastid genome. These plastid-encoded chloroplast proteins fulfi...
Plastids perform many essential functions in plant metabolism including photosynthesis, synthesis of metabolites, and stress signaling. The most prominent type in green leaves is the chloroplast which...
Chloroplasts convert solar energy into biologically useful forms of energy by performing photosynthesis. Although light and particular genes are known to promote chloroplast development, little is kno...
The B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LTB) is a model antigen that induces a strong immune response upon oral administration and enhances immune responses to conjugated and co-administe...
This is a study whose focus is on understanding the clinical utility of rectal ultrastructure in detecting colonic neoplasm. The method uses Low-coherence Enhanced Backscattering Spectrosc...
this study is to analyze and compare the ultrastructure of the retinal and vitreous plane of the epiretinal membrane and internal limiting membrane removed during macular surgery and to...
The excised ILM from 7 eyes of 7 patients with MTM including 7 eyes with macular retinoschisis and 4 eyes with foveal detachment but without any retinal break underwent vitrectomy with ind...
Isolated minority communities in China use traditional plant-based methods of mosquito control. This study is evaluating 4 plants used in this way by monitoring mosquitoes entering houses...
Ultra-high frequency ultrasound may be useful in the field of vascular research, given its ability to accurately characterize arterial wall thickness and ultrastructure. In patients with ...
Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.
Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.