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Degradation of nitrogen-rich purines is tightly and oppositely regulated under drought and low nitrogen supply in bread wheat. Allantoin is a key target metabolite for improving nitrogen homeostasis under stress. The metabolite allantoin is an intermediate of the catabolism of purines (components of nucleotides) and is known for its housekeeping role in nitrogen (N) recycling and also for its function in N transport and storage in nodulated legumes. Allantoin was also shown to differentially accumulate upon abiotic stress in a range of plant species but little is known about its role in cereals. To address this, purine catabolic pathway genes were identified in hexaploid bread wheat and their chromosomal location was experimentally validated. A comparative study of two Australian bread wheat genotypes revealed a highly significant increase of allantoin (up to 29-fold) under drought. In contrast, allantoin significantly decreased (up to 22-fold) in response to N deficiency. The observed changes were accompanied by transcriptional adjustment of key purine catabolic genes, suggesting that the recycling of purine-derived N is tightly regulated under stress. We propose opposite fates of allantoin in plants under stress: the accumulation of allantoin under drought circumvents its degradation to ammonium (NH) thereby preventing N losses. On the other hand, under N deficiency, increasing the NH liberated via allantoin catabolism contributes towards the maintenance of N homeostasis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant molecular biology
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A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC 184.108.40.206.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
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