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Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is associated with an increased risk of various diseases. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration is the best marker for vitamin D status and its concentration < 20 ng/mL indicates VDD. However, its measurement is not easily applicable for the evaluation of vitamin D status in the general population because of its cost. Therefore, we aimed to develop a simple questionnaire for easily identifying the risk of VDD. From the total sample (649 healthy subjects aged 19-70 years), 434 and 215 subjects were randomly assigned to the derivation and the validation cohort, respectively. Prediction model for VDD was developed by backward logistic regression analysis. The regression β coefficients of the significant predictors were transformed into integral numbers and used for the individual score. These individual scores were summed to calculate the total risk score (VDD questionnaire for Japanese score: VDDQ-J score). VDD was present in 54.1% of the total subjects. The model for the prediction of VDD consisted of 7 predictors. Areas under the curve were 0.78 and 0.75 in the data set of internal validation and of the external validation, respectively. The cutoff value was determined to be 31 points (range 0-54) with the sensitivity/specificity and positive predictive value/negative predictive value of 61%/79%, and 81%/57%, respectively. Our VDDQ-J score is easy to answer by the wide range of subjects, and well predicts VDD. This risk score would be useful to identify subjects at risk for VDD both in clinical and epidemiological settings.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
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A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
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