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Paraquat is a herbicide that is commonly used worldwide. Exposure to paraquat results in Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including dopaminergic cell loss. Nutrition has also been linked in the pathogenesis of PD, such as reduced levels of folic acid, a B-vitamin and component of one-carbon metabolism. Within one-carbon metabolism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the irreversible conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF). A polymorphism in MTHFR (677 C&cenveo_unknown_entity_wingdings_F0E0;T) has been reported in 5-15% of North American and European human populations. The MTHFR polymorphism is also prevalent in PD patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of paraquat-induced PD-like pathology in the context of reduced levels of MTHFR. Three-month-old male Mthfr+/- mice, which model the MTHFR polymorphism observed in humans, were administered intraperitoneal injections of paraquat (10mg/kg) or saline six times over three weeks. At the end of paraquat treatment, motor and memory function were assessed followed by collection of brain tissue for biochemical analysis. Mthfr+/- mice treated with paraquat showed impaired motor function. There was increased microglial activation within the substantia nigra (SN) of Mthfr+/- mice treated with paraquat. Additionally, all Mthfr+/- mice that were treated with paraquat showed increased oxidative stress within the dorsal striatum, but not the SN. The present results show that paraquat exposure increases PD-like pathology in mice deficient in one-carbon metabolism.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
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A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
A protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated amino acids and proteins, releasing repaired proteins and lactate or glycolate. It deglycates CYSTEINE, ARGININE and LYSINE residues to reactivate proteins by reversing glycation and prevent the formation of ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS. It protects cells against OXIDATIVE STRESS and CELL DEATH by functioning as an oxidative stress sensor and redox-sensitive MOLECULAR CHAPERONE and PROTEASE. Mutations in the PARK7 gene are associated with autosomal-recessive, early-onset PARKINSON DISEASE.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
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