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Glucose monitoring has become a crucial part of diabetes care, and is also of importance in the food industry. However, the measurements are subject to certain limitations and errors. These may result from many factors, including the strip manufacturing process, inappropriate storage, temperature, coding, aging, etc. Here, we discuss the measurement of glucose in real samples using techniques such as photometric assay, glucometers, and using a proposed biosensor. Biosensor platforms based on the multicomponent material magnetite/lignin/polydopamine-glucose oxidase with the addition of ferrocene and a dedicated carbon paste electrode (CPE/FeO/Lig/PDA/GOx/Fc) were fabricated for glucose detection in real, commercially available glucose-based samples. To determine the morphological features of the materials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and zeta potential measurements were carried out. Moreover, to determine the effectiveness of glucose oxidase immobilization the Bradford assays was applied. Analysis of glucose-based products was carried out based on photometric measurements using an AU480 Chemical Analyzer from Beckam Coulter, with the use of three glucometers (Wellion Calla light® WELL 900LB, CERA-CHEK 1Code®Model G400, iXell®Rev.04/10-PL), and with the use of our proposed CPE/FeO/Lig/PDA/GOx/Fc biosensor. Tests on real samples demonstrated the repeatability of the results. The results showed that this biosensor has excellent potential for application in the determination of glucose in various commercial products.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of biological macromolecules
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The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 18.104.22.168.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
Immunoassay - ELISA
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