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Involvement of the Adhesion GPCRs Latrophilins in the Regulation of Insulin Release.

07:00 EST 5th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Involvement of the Adhesion GPCRs Latrophilins in the Regulation of Insulin Release."

Insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is a highly complex and tightly regulated process. Its dysregulation is one characteristic of type 2 diabetes, and thus, an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms controlling insulin secretion is essential for rational therapeutic intervention. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been established as major regulators of insulin exocytosis. Recent studies also suggest the involvement of adhesion GPCRs, a non-prototypical class of GPCRs. Here, we identify latrophilins, which belong to the class of adhesion GPCRs, to be highly expressed in different cell types of pancreatic islets. In vitro and ex vivo analyses show that distinct splice variants of the latrophilin LPHN3/ADGRL3 decrease insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells by reducing intracellular cyclic AMP levels via the G-mediated pathway. Our data highlight the key role of LPHN3 in modulating insulin secretion and its potential as therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cell reports
ISSN: 2211-1247
Pages: 1573-1584.e5

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).

Non-visual system arrestins that negatively regulate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) and may also function independently of GPCR signaling. They bind and recruit many different signaling factors, including MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; SRC-FAMILY-KINASES; and FILAMIN to GPCRs and may recognize different phosphorylation states of the receptors to determine the specificity of the cellular response to signaling.

A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.

Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS. It can be caused by the presence of INSULIN ANTIBODIES or the abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on target cell surfaces. It is often associated with OBESITY; DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS; INFECTION; and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)

LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.

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