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Pre-existing Functional Heterogeneity of Tumorigenic Compartment as the Origin of Chemoresistance in Pancreatic Tumors.

07:00 EST 5th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Pre-existing Functional Heterogeneity of Tumorigenic Compartment as the Origin of Chemoresistance in Pancreatic Tumors."

Adaptive drug-resistance mechanisms allow human tumors to evade treatment through selection and expansion of treatment-resistant clones. Here, studying clonal evolution of tumor cells derived from human pancreatic tumors, we demonstrate that in vitro cultures and in vivo tumors are maintained by a common set of tumorigenic cells that can be used to establish clonal replica tumors (CRTs), large cohorts of animals bearing human tumors with identical clonal composition. Using CRTs to conduct quantitative assessments of adaptive responses to therapeutics, we uncovered a multitude of functionally heterogeneous subpopulations of cells with differential degrees of drug sensitivity. High-throughput isolation and deep characterization of unique clonal lineages showed genetic and transcriptomic diversity underlying functionally diverse subpopulations. Molecular annotation of gemcitabine-naive clonal lineages with distinct responses to treatment in the context of CRTs generated signatures that can predict the response to chemotherapy, representing a potential biomarker to stratify patients with pancreatic cancer.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cell reports
ISSN: 2211-1247
Pages: 1518-1532.e9

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.

Extracts prepared from pancreatic tissue that may contain the pancreatic enzymes or other specific uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities. PANCREATIN is a specific extract containing digestive enzymes and used to treat pancreatic insufficiency.

A pancreatic trypsin inhibitor common to all mammals. It is secreted with the zymogens into the pancreatic juice. It is a protein composed of 56 amino acid residues and is different in amino acid composition and physiological activity from the Kunitz bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (APROTININ).

A true cyst of the PANCREAS, distinguished from the much more common PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST by possessing a lining of mucous EPITHELIUM. Pancreatic cysts are categorized as congenital, retention, neoplastic, parasitic, enterogenous, or dermoid. Congenital cysts occur more frequently as solitary cysts but may be multiple. Retention cysts are gross enlargements of PANCREATIC DUCTS secondary to ductal obstruction. (From Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p4145)

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