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In multiple sclerosis (MS), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning may be dysregulated due to the high cortisol levels involved in the disease activity. HPA axis dysregulation can affect cognitive performance, including executive functions. This study aimed to evaluate hair cortisol concentration and perceived stress as well as verify the association with the performance of executive function in both individuals diagnosed with MS and control individuals. Hair cortisol concentration and perceived stress were evaluated and their association with the performance of healthy individuals (n = 33) and those with MS (n = 64), most of them with remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RRMS) assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Instruments that were employed to measure perceived stress and health aspects included the Behavioral Assessment Dysexecutive Syndrome, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Test, and Perceived Stress Scale. No significant statistical difference was found in the comparison of means among the groups; however, an association was found when using statistical correlation tests between cortisol and cognitive performance in the clinical group (r = 0.31, p = 0.10). Further, an absence of correlations with perceived stress measure was noted. It was possible to observe interaction between group factors and low level of cortisol and problem-solving/cognitive flexibility in the MS group. The results indicated that stress measures used in the present study seem to influence the performance of inhibitory control and problem-solving/cognitive flexibility, the latter with low levels of cortisol in individuals with MS. We suggest studies that examine different measures of physiological stress and characteristics of the disease such as more time of stress.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996)
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In order to anticipate the diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the diagnostic criteria had been reviewed several times in the last years.
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A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form. (From Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S73-S79; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A non-glycosylated form of interferon beta-1 that has a serine at position 17. It is used in the treatment of both RELAPSING-REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS and CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.
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Multiple Sclerosis MS
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurological condition affecting 100,000 young adults in the UK. The condition results from autoimmune damage to myelin, causing interference in nerve signaling. Symptoms experienced depend on the pa...