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Neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have a robust relationship with atherothrombotic disease risk, which led to the idea that interfering with the release of NETs therapeutically would ameliorate atherosclerosis. In human studies, acute coronary events and the pro-thrombotic state cause markedly elevated levels of circulating deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and chromatin, suggesting that DNase I might produce cardiovascular benefit. DNase I reproduced the phenotype of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) deficiency and showed a significant benefit for atherothrombotic disease in experimental mouse models. However, the mechanisms of benefit remain unclear. Insights into the mechanisms underlying NET release and atherogenic inflammation have come from transgenic mouse studies. In particular, the importance of neutrophil NET formation in promoting atherothrombotic disease has been shown and linked to profound pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects, complement activation and endothelial dysfunction. Recent studies have shown that myeloid deficiency of PAD4 leads to diminished NET formation, which in turn protects against atherosclerosis burden, propagation of its thrombotic complications and notably macrophage inflammation in plaques. In addition, oxidative stress and neutrophil cholesterol accumulation have emerged as important factors driving NET release, likely involving mitochondrial reactive oxidants and neutrophil inflammasome activation. Further elucidation of the mechanisms linking hyperlipidaemia to the release of NETs may lead to the development of new therapeutics specifically targeting atherogenic inflammation, with likely benefit for cardiovascular diseases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Thrombosis and haemostasis
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Extracellular structure primarily composed of CHROMATIN and associated PROTEASES.
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
A family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins that is structurally similar to LATENT TGF-BETA BINDING PROTEINS, but contain additional TGF-beta binding domains, in addition to unique domains at their N and C-terminals. Fibrillins assemble into 10-12 nm MICROFIBRILS that function in a variety of cell interactions with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and developmental processes such as ELASTIC TISSUE maintenance and assembly, and the targeting of growth factors to the extracellular matrix.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
A multisystemic disease of a complex genetic background. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels (VASCULITIS) leading to damage in any number of organs. The common features include granulomatous inflammation of the RESPIRATORY TRACT and kidneys. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies (ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES) against neutrophil proteinase-3 (WEGENER AUTOANTIGEN).
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