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Curcumin (cur) is a well known plant flavonoid with pleiotropic pharmacological activities. However, due to its poor bioavailability those therapeutic benefits are still out of reach for patient community. The main aim of our study was to prepare sustained release cur microparticles (CuMPs) with Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), an FDA approved biodegradable polymer and to assess their pharmacological potential in multiple low doses streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). CuMPs were formulated and characterized for size (12.71 ± 4.20 μm) and encapsulation efficiency (85.10 ± 2.33%) with 28% drug loading. In vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies showed promising results of sustained release of cur from CuMPs. With this here we report a strategy that single administration of CuMPs may fill the therapeutic window that is missing from free drug repeated administration and low bioavailability of cur. Moving forward with this concept, we compared the therapeutic effects of CuMPs (equivalent to 7.5 mg/kg cur with free cur orally (100 mg/kg) and intraperitoneally (7.5 mg/kg) administered daily in MLD-STZ challenged animals). CuMPs exhibited superior effects compared to daily administration free drug given either orally or i.p. in terms of lowering the blood glucose levels, improved glucose clearance as evident from results of i.p. glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Interestingly, we observed a remarkable reduction in diabetes incidence in CuMPs groups (only one out of six animals i.e. 16.6%). Moreover, plasma and tissue levels of insulin indicated superior effect of CuMPs. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis of insulin in pancreatic β-cells further confirmed the improved therapeutic benefit with significant increase in insulin signal with CuMPs. Amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation of CuMPs was observed as the molecular mechanism behind the observed superior pharmacological effects with CuMPs. Cumulatively, our sustained release CuMPs formulation may serve as a bridge in overcoming the poor pharmacokinetics issues associated with cur and may hasten the clinical translation of cur.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE that contains CURCUMIN and curcuminoids.
A group of compounds consisting of two aromatic rings separated by seven carbons (HEPTANES) and having various substituents. The best known member is CURCUMIN.
Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.