Gene expression and phenoloxidase activities of hemocyanin isoforms in response to pathogen infections in abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

07:00 EST 4th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Gene expression and phenoloxidase activities of hemocyanin isoforms in response to pathogen infections in abalone Haliotis diversicolor."

Hemocyanins (Hc), the main protein components of hemolymph in invertebrates, are not only involved in oxygen transport but also linked to non-specific immune responses. In this study, we used abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) Hc to study the basis of its diversified functions through gene, protein, peptides, and phenoloxidase (PO) activity levels. Three complete hemocyanin gene (HdH) sequences were cloned for the first time. By comparing the copies and location of HdH between abalone and other mollusks, we propose that Hc gene duplication and linkage is likely to be common during the evolution of mollusk respiratory proteins. We further demonstrate that all three genes could be expressed in abalone, with expression varying based on the developmental stages, tissue types, and different pathogen infections. However, HdH1 and HdH2 appear to be synthesized by the same cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Furthermore, the PO activity of HdH can be induced by trypsin, urea, and SDS in vitro. Viral infection can stimulate its PO activity in vivo by cleaving the protein into fragments. Consequently, we present a comprehensive study of abalone hemocyanin, providing important evidence for an in-depth understanding of the physiological and immune functions of Hc in mollusks.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: International journal of biological macromolecules
ISSN: 1879-0003


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The expression of a gene in an abnormal place, or at an abnormal time in an organism. Ectopic Gene Expression is often induced artificially by genetic techniques.

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