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Acquisition of fresh water (FW) is problematic for FW-dependent animals living in marine environments that are distant from sources of FW associated with land. Knowledge of how marine vertebrates respond to oceanic rainfall, and indeed the drinking responses of vertebrates generally following drought, is extremely scant. The Yellow-bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis platurus) is the only pelagic species of squamate reptile and ranges across the Indo-Pacific oceans, having one of the largest geographic distributions of any vertebrate species. It requires FW and dehydrates at sea during periods of drought. Here we report drinking behaviors of sea snakes precisely at the transition from dry to wet season when rainfall first impacted the ocean following 6 months of seasonal drought. We show that the percentage of sea snakes that voluntarily drank FW in the laboratory when captured over eight successive days decreased from 80% to 13% before and after rainfall commenced, respectively. The percentage of snakes that drank immediately following capture exhibited a significant linear decline as the earliest rains of the wet season continued. Drinking by snakes indicates thirst related to dehydration, and thus thirsty snakes must have dehydrated during the previous six months of drought. Hence, the progressive decline in percentage of thirsty snakes indicates they were drinking from FW lenses associated with the first rainfall events of the wet season. These data reinforce the importance of accessing oceanic FW from precipitation, with implications for survival and distribution of pelagic populations that might be subjected to intensifying drought related to climate change.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
Fresh groundwater in an island aquifer is an extremely important resource that is highly vulnerable to variations in natural weather cycles and climate change effects. On small islands, precipitation ...
Freshwater demand in Southeast Florida is predicted to increase over the next few decades. However, shifting patterns in the intensity and frequency of drought create considerable pressure on local fr...
Visual performance with wavefront-guided (WFG) contact lenses has only been reported immediately after manufacture without time for habituation, and comparison has only been made with clinically unref...
Among the group of diseases comprising corneal dystrophies, there are a number for which contact lenses may be considered. For example, soft contact lenses may be beneficial in the management of recur...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate cholesterol sorption by Air Optix® Aqua lenses compared to ULTRA lenses after 30 days of wear.
This is a research study designed to test the utility of D-shaped bifocal lenses and PRIO Computer Lenses for persons using a computer. We hypothesize that lenses specially designed for ...
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The purpose of this study is to compare AIR OPTIX® plus HydraGlyde (AOHG) contact lenses to ACUVUE® VITA® (VITA) contact lenses for total lipid uptake (total of surface and bulk uptake)...
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An infraorder of snakes in the order Serpentes that includes all snakes except blind snakes and thread snakes.
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
Lenses, generally made of plastic or silicone, that are implanted into the eye in front of the natural EYE LENS, by the IRIS, to improve VISION, OCULAR. These intraocular lenses are used to supplement the natural lens instead of replacing it.
Artificial implanted lenses.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
Mergers & Acquisitions
Commercial and market reports on mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical device and life-science industries. Mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A;) is an aspect of corporate strategy, corporate finance and manageme...