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Loxocelism is a neglected medical problem that depends on its severity, can cause a cutaneous or viscero-cutaneous syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by hemostatic effects and necrosis, and the severity of the loxoscelism depends on the amount of venom injected, the zone of inoculation, and the species. In the Chihuahuan desert, the most abundant species is L. apachea. Its venom and biological effects are understudied, including neurological effects. Thus, our aim is to explore the effect of this regional species of medical interest in the United States-Mexico border community, using rat blood and central nervous system (CNS), particularly, two brain structures involved in brain homeostasis, Area postrema (AP) and Choroid plexus (PC). L. apachea specimens were collected and venom was obtained. Different venom concentrations (0, 0.178 and 0.87 μg/g) were inoculated into Sprague-Dawley rats (intraperitoneal injection). Subsequently, blood was extracted and stained with Wright staining; coronal sections of AP were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining and laminin γ immunolabelling, the same was done with CP sections. Blood, AP and CP were observed under the microscope and abnormalities in erythrocytes and fluctuation in leukocyte types were described and quantified in blood. Capillaries were also quantified in AP and damage was described in CP. L. apachea venom produced a segmented neutrophil increment (neutrophilia), lymphocyte diminishment (leukopenia) and erythrocytes presented membrane abnormalities (acanthocytosis). Extravasated erythrocytes were observed in HE stained sections from both, AP and CP, which suggest that near to this section a hemorrhage is present; through immunohistofluorescence, a diminishment of laminin γ was observed in AP endothelial cells and in CP ependymal cells when these structures were exposed to L. apachea venom. In conclusion, L. apachea venom produced leukopenia, netrophilia and acanthocytosis in rat peripheral blood, and also generated hemorrhages on AP and CP through degradation of laminin γ.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
The choroid plexus (CP), main component of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), protects the brain from peripheral inflammation similar to the blood-brain barrier. Thus, CP is considered a criti...
Located within the brain's ventricles, the choroid plexus produces cerebrospinal fluid and forms an important barrier between the central nervous system and the blood. For unknown reasons, the choroid...
The area postrema in the caudal fourth ventricular floor is highly vascular without blood-brain or blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In addition to its function as vomiting center, several others are...
Perinatal infection and inflammation are major risk factors for injury in the developing brain, however, underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Leukocyte migration to the cerebrospinal fluid ...
The object of this review is to describe the choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) occurring in the fetus and neonate with regard to clinical presentation, location, pathology, treatment, and outcome.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation is safe in adult patients with communicating hydrocephalus and risk factors for complications from t...
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common complications of general anesthesia in pediatrics. Pediatric rates of nausea and vomiting are approximately double those ...
This is a "tissue banking and data review" research study that also has a "clinical" research part: - The goal of the tissue banking part of this study is to store tissue in a research...
To assess the safety of xenotransplantation of NTCELL [immunoprotected (alginate-encapsulated) choroid plexus cells] in patients with Parkinson's disease, assessed over the duration of the...
RATIONALE: In this study a combination of anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapy) is used to treat brain tumors in young children. Using chemotherapy gives the brain more time to develop before r...
Benign or malignant tumors which arise from the choroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain. Papillomas (see PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS) and carcinomas are the most common histologic subtypes, and tend to seed throughout the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces. Clinical features include headaches, ataxia and alterations of consciousness, primarily resulting from associated HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072; J Neurosurg 1998 Mar;88(3):521-8)
A small, rounded eminence on each side of the FOURTH VENTRICLE, which receives nerve fibers from the SOLITARY NUCLEUS; SPINAL CORD; and adjacent areas of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA. The area postrema lies outside the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and its functions include acting as an emetic chemoreceptor.
A usually benign neoplasm that arises from the cuboidal epithelium of the choroid plexus and takes the form of an enlarged CHOROID PLEXUS, which may be associated with oversecretion of CSF. The tumor usually presents in the first decade of life with signs of increased intracranial pressure including HEADACHES; ATAXIA; DIPLOPIA; and alterations of mental status. In children it is most common in the lateral ventricles and in adults it tends to arise in the fourth ventricle. Malignant transformation to choroid plexus carcinomas may rarely occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p667; DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072)
Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...