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Acanthocytosis and brain damage in area postrema and choroid plexus: Description of novel signs of Loxosceles apachea envenomation in rats.

07:00 EST 7th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Acanthocytosis and brain damage in area postrema and choroid plexus: Description of novel signs of Loxosceles apachea envenomation in rats."

Loxocelism is a neglected medical problem that depends on its severity, can cause a cutaneous or viscero-cutaneous syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by hemostatic effects and necrosis, and the severity of the loxoscelism depends on the amount of venom injected, the zone of inoculation, and the species. In the Chihuahuan desert, the most abundant species is L. apachea. Its venom and biological effects are understudied, including neurological effects. Thus, our aim is to explore the effect of this regional species of medical interest in the United States-Mexico border community, using rat blood and central nervous system (CNS), particularly, two brain structures involved in brain homeostasis, Area postrema (AP) and Choroid plexus (PC). L. apachea specimens were collected and venom was obtained. Different venom concentrations (0, 0.178 and 0.87 μg/g) were inoculated into Sprague-Dawley rats (intraperitoneal injection). Subsequently, blood was extracted and stained with Wright staining; coronal sections of AP were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining and laminin γ immunolabelling, the same was done with CP sections. Blood, AP and CP were observed under the microscope and abnormalities in erythrocytes and fluctuation in leukocyte types were described and quantified in blood. Capillaries were also quantified in AP and damage was described in CP. L. apachea venom produced a segmented neutrophil increment (neutrophilia), lymphocyte diminishment (leukopenia) and erythrocytes presented membrane abnormalities (acanthocytosis). Extravasated erythrocytes were observed in HE stained sections from both, AP and CP, which suggest that near to this section a hemorrhage is present; through immunohistofluorescence, a diminishment of laminin γ was observed in AP endothelial cells and in CP ependymal cells when these structures were exposed to L. apachea venom. In conclusion, L. apachea venom produced leukopenia, netrophilia and acanthocytosis in rat peripheral blood, and also generated hemorrhages on AP and CP through degradation of laminin γ.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PloS one
ISSN: 1932-6203
Pages: e0211689

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Benign or malignant tumors which arise from the choroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain. Papillomas (see PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS) and carcinomas are the most common histologic subtypes, and tend to seed throughout the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces. Clinical features include headaches, ataxia and alterations of consciousness, primarily resulting from associated HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072; J Neurosurg 1998 Mar;88(3):521-8)

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